Lesson 21-23: Intro to Latin Bases and Prefixes

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Mageros
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Lesson 21-23: Intro to Latin Bases and Prefixes
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2014-03-03 21:52:37
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Intro Latin Bases Prefixes
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Intro to Latin Bases and Prefixes
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  1. Latin bases sometimes occur in English on their own, with or without an extra final e.
    • Latin Base: FORT-, 'strong'
    • English Derivative: fort
    • Latin Base: VERB-, 'word'
    • English Derivative: verb
    • Latin Base: GRAV-, 'heavy'
    • English Derivative: grave
    • Latin Base: FIN-, 'end'
    • English Derivative: fine
  2. Usually however, two or more bases are combined, or prefixes and suffixes are added, as in the following:
    • FIN-, 'end' + -al, 'pertaining to' + ity, 'state of'
    • Finality.
  3. When two or more Latin bases are combined, generally an i appears between them as a connective, although frequently o and other vowels are used.
    • SACR-, 'sacred' + (i) + FIC-, 'to make'
    • Sacrifice.
  4. Sometimes Greek and Latin bases are combined in the same word. These are called hybrids.
    • (Gr.) AUT(o), 'self' + (Lat.) MOB, 'to move' + -ile
    • Automobile.
  5. Often when a prefix is added to a base that starts with a consonant, the last consonant of the prefix is “assimilated” to the first consonant of the base. One hint that this is happening will be a doubling of the consonant of the base.
    ex-, “from” + FECT-, “to make” = effect
  6. A final n in a prefix will become m before a p or a b.
    in-, “not” + POSS, “to be able” + -ible = impossible
  7. Sometimes the base itself will change when a prefix is added.
    • FACT- gives “factory” and “manufacture”, but also “effect” and “defect”
    • SED- gives “sedentary”, but also “reside”
  8. ab-, a-, abs-
    • away from
    • from
  9. ad-, ac-, ag-, etc.
    Assimilation will cause the last consonant of this prefix to become the same as the first consonant of the base.
    • to
    • toward
    • near
  10. ambi-, ambo-
    • both
    • around
  11. ante-
    • before
    • in front of
  12. circum-, circu-
    around
  13. con-, com-, co-, etc.
    Assimilation will cause the last consonant of this prefix to become the same as the first consonant of the base.
    • with
    • together
    • very
  14. contra-, contro-
    (through French, counter-)
    • opposite
    • against
  15. de-
    • down
    • away
    • off
    • thoroughly
  16. dis-, di-, dif-
    • apart
    • in different directions
    • thoroughly
  17. ex-, e-, ef-
    after ex- an initial s in a base sometimes disappears, as in ex-(S)PECT and ex-(S)PIRE.
    • out
    • from
    • removal
    • completely
  18. extra-, extro-
    • outside of
    • beyond
  19. in-, im-, etc.
    (through French, en-)
    Assimilation will cause the last consonant of this prefix to become the same as the first consonant of the base.
    • into
    • on
  20. intra-, intro-
    within
  21. in-, im-, etc.
    Assimilation will cause the last consonant of this prefix to become the same as the first consonant of the base.
    not
  22. infra-
    below
  23. inter-
    • between
    • among
  24. juxta-
    • by the side of
    • close to
  25. ob-, etc.
    Assimilation will cause the last consonant of this prefix to become the same as the first consonant of the base.
    • against
    • toward
    • completely
  26. per-
    • through
    • wrong
    • completely
  27. post-
    • behind
    • after
  28. pre-, (prae-)
    • before
    • in front of
  29. pro-
    • forward
    • in front of
  30. re-, red-
    • back
    • again
    • against
  31. retro-
    • backwards
    • behind
  32. se-
    • aside
    • away
  33. sub-, sus-, suc-, etc.,
    Assimilation will cause the last consonant of this prefix to become the same as the first consonant of the base.
    • under
    • up from under
    • somewhat
  34. super-, supra-
    above
  35. trans-, tran-, tra-
    • across
    • through
  36. ultra-
    beyond
  37. CAUD-
    tail
  38. CEREBR-
    brain
  39. CID-, CIS-
    • to cut
    • to kill
  40. DORS-
    back
  41. DUC-, DUCT-
    • to lead
    • to draw
  42. ERR-
    • to wander
    • to deviate
  43. FLEX-, FLECT-
    to bend
  44. FUND-, FUS-
    (through French, FOUND-)
    • to pour
    • to melt
  45. GREG-
    flock
  46. LACT-
    milk
  47. LATER-
    side
  48. MEDI-
    middle
  49. OV-
    egg
  50. PON-, POSIT-, -POSE
    (through French, POUND-)
    • to place
    • to put
  51. RUG-
    wrinkle
  52. SANGUI(N)-
    blood
  53. SICC-
    dry
  54. VAL-
    • to be strong
    • to be well
  55. VARIC-
    twisted and swollen (vein)
  56. VERT-, VERS-
    to turn
  57. ARTICUL-
    joint
  58. BUCC-
    • cheek
    • mouth
  59. CLUD-, CLUS-, CLOS-
    • to close
    • to shut
  60. CORD-
    heart
  61. COST-
    rib
  62. CRUR-
    leg
  63. CUR(R)-, CURS-
    • to run
    • to go
  64. DENT-
    tooth
  65. FEBR-
    fever
  66. FER-
    • to bear
    • to carry
    • to produce
  67. FOLI-
    leaf
  68. HER-, HERS-
    to stick
  69. JECT-
    to throw
  70. JACUL-
    dart
  71. MUR-
    wall
  72. NOMIN-, NOM-
    name
  73. RADI-
    spoke of a wheel
  74. SEMIN-
    seed
  75. TEG-, TECT-
    to cover
  76. TUSS-
    cough
  77. VEN-
    vein
  78. ARBOR-
    tree
  79. CAL-
    to be warm
  80. CARIN-
    keel
  81. CERN-, CRET-, CRE-
    • to separate
    • to distinguish
    • to secrete
  82. CILI-
    • eyelid
    • eyelash
  83. CORN(U)-
    horn
  84. CUB-, CUMB-, CUBIT-
    to lie
  85. DORM-, DORMIT-
    to sleep
  86. FET-, (FOET-)
    • offspring
    • fetus
  87. FRANG-, (-FRING-), FRAG-, FRACT-
    • to break
    • to bend
  88. GRAD-, GRESS-
    • to step
    • to go
  89. LINGU-
    • tongue
    • language
  90. MENT-
    chin
  91. PLIC-, PLICIT-
    to fold
  92. POT-
    to be powerful
  93. PUR-
    pus
  94. REN-
    kidney
  95. SON-
    sound
  96. SUD-
    to sweat
  97. TRUD-, TRUS-
    • to push
    • to thrust

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