Exercise 13 - Articulations and Body Movements

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Exercise 13 - Articulations and Body Movements
2014-03-06 21:35:26
Vocabulary StudyGuide

Biology 103A
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  1. flexion
    decreases the angle of the joint and reduces the distances between the two bones, typical of hinge joints (bending the knee or elbow) and also common in at ball-and-socket joints (bending forward at the hip)
  2. extension
    increases the angle of a joint and the distance between two bones or parts of the body (straightening the knee or elbow); if extension is greater than 180 degrees, it's termed hyperextension
  3. abduction
    movement of a limb away from the midline or median plane of the body
  4. adduction
    movement of a limb toward the midline of the body or drawing the fingers or toes together
  5. rotation
    movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis without lateral or medial displacement, a common movement of ball-and-socket joints
  6. circumduction
    a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction commonly observed in ball-and socket joints like the shoulder, condyloid and saddle joints also allow circumduction
  7. pronation
    movement of the palm of the hand from an anterior, radius rotates over ulna
  8. supination
    movement of the palm from a posterior position to anterior position, the radius and ulna are parallel
  9. inversion
    a movement that results in the medial turning of the sole of the foot
  10. eversion
    a movement that results in the lateral turning of the sole of the foot
  11. dorsiflexion
    a movement of the ankle joint in a dorsal direction
  12. plantar flexion
    a movement of the ankle joint in which the foot is flexed downward
  13. meniscus
    to increase cushioning and improve fit
  14. bursa/tendon sheaths
    to decrease friction
  15. ligaments
    (linking bone to bone) strengthen joint but stretch only 5-7% of it
  16. articular cartilage
    covers bone ends to cushion
  17. fibrous capsule
    dense irregular connective tissue, surround the articulation of two adjoining bones
  18. synovial membrane
    produces a lubricating fluid (synovial fluid) that reduces friction
  19. synovial fluid
    the clear, viscid, lubricating fluid secreted by synovial membranes.
  20. plane (nonaxial) joints
    articulating surfaces are flat or slightly curved, allow only gliding movement as the surfaces slide past one another, ex: intercarparl joints, intertarsal joints, and , and joints between vertebral articular surfaces
  21. hinge (uniaxial) joints
    the rounded or cylindrical process of one bone fits into the concave surface another bone, allowing movement in one plane, usually flexion and extension, ex: elbow and interphalangeal joints
  22. pivot (uniaxial) joints
    the rounded surface of one bone articulates with a shallow depression or foramen in another, ex: proximal radioulnar joint
  23. condylar (biaxial) joints
    the oval condyle of one bone fits into an ellipsoidal depression in another bone to allow movement in two planes, usually flexion/extension and abduction/ adduction. ex: the wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints
  24. saddle (biaxial) joints
    articulating surfaces are saddle shaped; one surface is convex, and the other is concave, permits two movements: flexion/extension and abduction/ adduction. Ex: carpometacarparl joints of the thumb
  25. ball-and-socket (multiaxial) joints
    the ball-shaped head of one bone fits into a cuplike depression of anther bone, permits flexion/extension, abduction/ adduction, and raotation. ex: shoulder and hip joints