Card Set Information
for the midterm
local invasion of a pathogen...
1. contain if possible (blockage of fibrinogen clots)
2. attack with local macrophages
3. bring in reinforcements (like neutrophils and monocytes)
Mast cells release chemicals...
increases tissue permeability
How to get white blood cells to area of invasion...
caused by expression of "selectin" on endothelial cells
rounding up of endothelial cells
3. circulating monocytes (or neutrophils) slow down on roll - like Velcro
: additional signals stops and squeezes them into intima
: chemo attractant
fragments of megakaryocytes
formed in bone marrow
1. vascular spasm (vasoconstriction)
2. platelet plug formation (platelets adhere to exposed collagen fibers)
3. coagulation (fibrin forms a mesh that traps RBC and platelets)
What is different about pathogens/debris that makes them likely to be phagocytized?
no protective coating
non-self proteins on "major histocompatibility complex" or wrong/no MHC
bound to antibodies and complement proteins called opsonization
Where are macrophages located?
bound in place in tissues and wandering throughout tissues
liver sinusoids (Kupffer cells)
How is our body "innately" immune to pathogens?
phagocytosis (by granulocytes and macrophages)
: complement system (tagging and destroying bacteria)
reaction magnifies with each exposure to antigen
specific cells produced to respond to each unique antigen
Types of WBC
1. granulocytes - neutrophils, basophils, eosinphils
2. macrophages - from monocytes
4. megakaryotes (platelets)
What are the parts of acquired immunity?
stimulated by antigens
Macrophages help lymphocytes by...
break down pathogens, releasing antigens
present antigens to lymphocytes
release cytokines (promotes lymphocyte activation and reproduction)
produce antibodies that move through body fluid (humoral)
attack antigens directly
B & T Lymphocytes both begin as...
pluripotent hematopoetic stem cells and become common lymphoid progenitor cells
T lymphocytes incubate in the...
thymus and migrate to lymph nodes
B lymphocytes incubate in the...
bone marrow and migrate to lymph nodes
In the thymus...
progenitor cells differentiate into large numbers of different T-lymphocytes
check each against self-antigens
occurs prior to and month after birth
skin- defensins (proteins that kill pathogens and keep normal microflora from overgrowing, requires vitamin d)
Acute Phase after Injury
Proteins made by the liver cause inflammation: 1) rubor 2) calor 3) dolor 4) tumor
Cellular Response after Injury
innate immunity: 1) macrophage 2) neutrophils 3) dendritic
Macrophage and dendritic cells...
phagocytose antigen/pathogen and carry antigen to nearest lymph node
at lymph node stimulate T and B cells