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local invasion of a pathogen...
- 1. contain if possible (blockage of fibrinogen clots)
- 2. attack with local macrophages
- 3. bring in reinforcements (like neutrophils and monocytes)
Mast cells release chemicals...
- 1. heparin
- 2. histamine
- 3. bradykinin
- 4. serotonin
increases tissue permeability
How to get white blood cells to area of invasion...
- 1. margination/adhesion caused by expression of "selectin" on endothelial cells
- 2. rounding up of endothelial cells
- 3. circulating monocytes (or neutrophils) slow down on roll - like Velcro
- 4. diapedesis: additional signals stops and squeezes them into intima
- 5. chemotaxis: chemo attractant
- aka thrombocytes
- fragments of megakaryocytes
- formed in bone marrow
- 1. vascular spasm (vasoconstriction)
- 2. platelet plug formation (platelets adhere to exposed collagen fibers)
- 3. coagulation (fibrin forms a mesh that traps RBC and platelets)
What is different about pathogens/debris that makes them likely to be phagocytized?
- no protective coating
- rough surface
- non-self proteins on "major histocompatibility complex" or wrong/no MHC
- bound to antibodies and complement proteins called opsonization
Where are macrophages located?
- bound in place in tissues and wandering throughout tissues
- subcuatneous tissue
- alveolar tissue
- intestinal walls
- lymph nodes
- liver sinusoids (Kupffer cells)
- bone marrow
How is our body "innately" immune to pathogens?
- phagocytosis (by granulocytes and macrophages)
- stomach acid
- plasma compounds: complement system (tagging and destroying bacteria)
- reaction magnifies with each exposure to antigen
- specific cells produced to respond to each unique antigen
Types of WBC
- 1. granulocytes - neutrophils, basophils, eosinphils
- 2. macrophages - from monocytes
- 3. lymphocytes
- 4. megakaryotes (platelets)
What are the parts of acquired immunity?
- B&T lymphcyes
- stimulated by antigens
Macrophages help lymphocytes by...
- break down pathogens, releasing antigens
- present antigens to lymphocytes
- release cytokines (promotes lymphocyte activation and reproduction)
produce antibodies that move through body fluid (humoral)
attack antigens directly
B & T Lymphocytes both begin as...
pluripotent hematopoetic stem cells and become common lymphoid progenitor cells
T lymphocytes incubate in the...
thymus and migrate to lymph nodes
B lymphocytes incubate in the...
bone marrow and migrate to lymph nodes
In the thymus...
- progenitor cells differentiate into large numbers of different T-lymphocytes
- check each against self-antigens
- occurs prior to and month after birth
- skin- defensins (proteins that kill pathogens and keep normal microflora from overgrowing, requires vitamin d)
- stomach acid
Acute Phase after Injury
Proteins made by the liver cause inflammation: 1) rubor 2) calor 3) dolor 4) tumor
Cellular Response after Injury
innate immunity: 1) macrophage 2) neutrophils 3) dendritic
Macrophage and dendritic cells...
- phagocytose antigen/pathogen and carry antigen to nearest lymph node
- at lymph node stimulate T and B cells