HPHY 324

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Author:
radavie21
ID:
264977
Filename:
HPHY 324
Updated:
2014-03-04 00:36:37
Tags:
physiology
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Description:
for the midterm
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  1. local invasion of a pathogen...
    • 1. contain if possible (blockage of fibrinogen clots)
    • 2. attack with local macrophages
    • 3. bring in reinforcements (like neutrophils and monocytes)
  2. Mast cells release chemicals...
    • 1. heparin
    • 2. histamine
    • 3. bradykinin
    • 4. serotonin
  3. heparin
    anti-coagulant
  4. heparin
    increases tissue permeability
  5. bradykinin
    vasodilator
  6. serotonin
    promotes hemostasis
  7. How to get white blood cells to area of invasion...
    • 1. margination/adhesion caused by expression of "selectin" on endothelial cells
    • 2. rounding up of endothelial cells
    • 3. circulating monocytes (or neutrophils) slow down on roll - like Velcro
    • 4. diapedesis: additional signals stops and squeezes them into intima
    • 5. chemotaxis: chemo attractant
  8. Platelets
    • aka thrombocytes
    • fragments of megakaryocytes
    • formed in bone marrow
  9. Hemostasis
    • 1. vascular spasm (vasoconstriction)
    • 2. platelet plug formation (platelets adhere to exposed collagen fibers)
    • 3. coagulation (fibrin forms a mesh that traps RBC and platelets)
  10. What is different about pathogens/debris that makes them likely to be phagocytized?
    • no protective coating
    • rough surface
    • non-self proteins on "major histocompatibility complex" or wrong/no MHC
    • bound to antibodies and complement proteins called opsonization
  11. Where are macrophages located?
    • bound in place in tissues and wandering throughout tissues
    • subcuatneous tissue
    • alveolar tissue
    • intestinal walls
    • lymph nodes
    • liver sinusoids (Kupffer cells)
    • spleen
    • bone marrow
  12. How is our body "innately" immune to pathogens?
    • phagocytosis (by granulocytes and macrophages)
    • stomach acid
    • skin
    • plasma compounds: complement system (tagging and destroying bacteria)
  13. Acquired Immunity
    • reaction magnifies with each exposure to antigen
    • specific cells produced to respond to each unique antigen
  14. Types of WBC
    • 1. granulocytes - neutrophils, basophils, eosinphils
    • 2. macrophages - from monocytes
    • 3. lymphocytes
    • 4. megakaryotes (platelets)
  15. What are the parts of acquired immunity?
    • B&T lymphcyes
    • stimulated by antigens
  16. Macrophages help lymphocytes by...
    • break down pathogens, releasing antigens
    • present antigens to lymphocytes
    • release cytokines (promotes lymphocyte activation and reproduction)
  17. B lymphocytes
    produce antibodies that move through body fluid (humoral)
  18. T lymphocytes
    attack antigens directly
  19. B & T Lymphocytes both begin as...
    pluripotent hematopoetic stem cells and become common lymphoid progenitor cells
  20. T lymphocytes incubate in the...
    thymus and migrate to lymph nodes
  21. B lymphocytes incubate in the...
    bone marrow and migrate to lymph nodes
  22. In the thymus...
    • progenitor cells differentiate into large numbers of different T-lymphocytes
    • check each against self-antigens
    • occurs prior to and month after birth
  23. Physical Barriers
    • skin- defensins (proteins that kill pathogens and keep normal microflora from overgrowing, requires vitamin d)
    • stomach acid
    • saliva
    • earwax
    • tears
    • cilia
  24. Acute Phase after Injury
    Proteins made by the liver cause inflammation: 1) rubor 2) calor 3) dolor 4) tumor
  25. Cellular Response after Injury
    innate immunity: 1) macrophage 2) neutrophils 3) dendritic
  26. Macrophage and dendritic cells...
    • phagocytose antigen/pathogen and carry antigen to nearest lymph node
    • at lymph node stimulate T and B cells

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