PHRD5975 Self-Care: Fungal Skin Infections

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PHRD5975 Self-Care: Fungal Skin Infections
2014-03-04 02:45:59
fungal infections

fungal infections
Show Answers:

  1. why are fungal skin infections often referred to as ringworm?
    the lesions are characteristically ring-shaped w/ clear centers & red, scaly borders
  2. where does the dermatophyte grow during the incubation stage?
    stratum corneum
  3. major immunologic defense against fungal skin infections
    type IV delayed-hypersensitivity response
  4. clinical presentation of tinea unguium
    affected nails lose shine, become opaque
  5. clinical presentation of tinea corporis
    • begin as small, circular, erythematous, scaly areas
    • lesions spread & borders may contain vesicles
    • pruritus
  6. clinical presentation of tinea cruris
    • on medial/upper parts of thighs & pubic area
    • small vesicles @ margins
    • bilateral w/ pruritus
    • NOT on penis & scrotum
  7. exclusions for self-tx of fungal skin infections (4)
    • 1) nails or scalp involvedĀ 
    • 2) face, mucous membranes, genitalia involved
    • 3) signs of possible secondary infection
    • 4) diabetes, systemic infection, immune deficiency
  8. MOA's of clotrimazole & miconazole in tx of fungal skin infections (3)
    • inhibit biosynthesis of ergosterol
    • damage fungal cell wall membrane - altering permeability
    • inhibit oxidative & peroxidative enzyme activity
  9. MOA of terbinafine HCl 1% in tx of fungal skin infections
    inhibits squalene epoxidase (key enzyme in sterol biosynthesis), resulting in accumulation of squalene & deficiency in sterols needed for fungal cell membranes
  10. directions for use of clotrimazole & miconazole
    apply topically once in morning & once in evening for up to 4 weeks
  11. antifungal agent known to typically work the fastest
    terbinafine (shown to work w/ 1-4 weeks of tx)
  12. MOA of butenafine HCl 1% in the tx of fungal skin infections
    squalene epoxidase inhibitor prevents synthesis of ergosterol, resulting in deficiency

    (same as terbinafine)
  13. directions for use of butenafine HCl 1% in tx of tinea pedis
    apply around affected toes BID x 1 week


    QD x 4 weeks
  14. butenafine HCl effective tx time
    1-4 weeks
  15. MOA of tolnaftate for tx of fungal skin infections
    believed to distort hyphae & stunts mycelial growth of fungi species
  16. only non-prescription drug approved for both preventing & treating tinea infections
  17. tolnaftate effective tx time
    2-4 weeks (but up to 4-6 weeks)
  18. use of aluminum salts in the tx of fungal skin infections
    • astringent
    • antibacterial
  19. MOA's of aluminum salts in the tx of fungal skin infections
    • as astringent:
    • - complexes w/ proteins, altering protein's ability to swell & hold water
    • - decrease edema, exudation, inflammation by reducing cell membrane permeability & hardening cement substance of capillary epithelium

    in concentrations >20%, possess antibacterial activity to prevent secondary infections
  20. why creams and solutions are the preferred formulation for tx of fungal skin infections
    most efficient & effective at delivering active ingredient to the epidermis
  21. complementary therapy shown to have higher mycologic cure rate than terbinafine 1% cream
    ajoene 1% cream