Psychology Exam #2

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  1. Environment
    Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people & things around us
  2. Sperm & Egg Cells
    • Sperm cells come from males
    • Egg cells come from females
    • Nucleus of each of these cells contain the genetic master code for your entire body
  3. Genes
    • The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes
    • A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
  4. Genome
    • The complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organisms chromosomes
    • 20,000 - 25,000 genes
  5. Temperament
    A person's characteristic emotional reactivity & intensity
  6. Pruning
    • Refers to neurological regulatory processes, which facilitate a change
    • in neural structure by reducing the overall number of neurons and
    • synapses, leaving more efficient synaptic configurations
  7. Norms
    • An understood rule for accepted & expected behavior
    • Norms prescribe "proper" behavior
  8. Gender Roles
    A set of expected behaviors for males & females
  9. Gender Typing
    The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
  10. Testosterone
    • Principal male hormone
    • The male's greater testosterone output starts the development of external male sex organs at about the 7th week of fetal development
  11. Evolutionary Perspective - Sex
    Women's approach to sex is more relational & men's more recreational
  12. Heritability
    • The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
    • The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations & environments studied
  13. Culture
    The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, & traditions shared by a group of people & transmitted from one generation to the next
  14. Stages of Prenatal Development
    • 1.  Zygote - conception to 2 weeks
    • 2.  Embryo - 2 weeks through 8 weeks
    • 3.  Fetus - 9 weeks to birth
  15. Teratogens
    Agents, such as chemicals & viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development & cause harm
  16. Habituation
    • Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulations
    • As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes & they look away sooner
  17. Infantile Amnesia
    Brain systems required to encode & retrieve specific events are not adequately developed to support long term memory before age 3
  18. Schema
    A concept or framework that organizes & interprets information
  19. Assimilation & Accommodation
    • Assimilation - interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
    • Accommodation - adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
  20. Object Permanence
    The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
  21. Conservation
    The principle that properties such as mass, volume, & number remains the same despite changes in the forms of objects
  22. Egocentrism
    In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
  23. Theory of Mind
    People's ideas about their own & other's mental states - about their feeling, perceptions, & thoughts, & the behaviors these might predict
  24. Erikson's Stages of Development
    • 1.  Trust vs. Mistrust - infancy to 1 year; if needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust
    • 2.  Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt - toddlerhood, 1 - 3 years; toddlers learn to exercise their will & do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities
    • 3.  Initiative vs. Guilt - preschool, 3 - 6 years; preschoolers learn to initiate tasks & carry out plans, or they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent
    • 4.  Competence vs. Inferiority - elementary school, 6 years - puberty; children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior
    • 5.  Identity vs. Role Confusion - adolescence, teen years into 20s; teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles & then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are
    • 6.  Intimacy vs. Isolation - young adulthood, 20s to early 40s; young adults struggle to form close relationships & to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated
    • 7.  Generativity vs. Stagnation - middle adulthood, 40s to 60s; in middle age, people discover a sense of contributing to the world usually through family & work, or they may feel a lack of purpose
    • 8.  Integrity vs. Despair - late adulthood, late 60s & up; reflecting on his or her life, an older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure
  25. Parenting Styles
    • Authoritarian Parents - impose rules & expect obedience; Ex:  don't stay out too late or you'll be grounded
    • Permissive Parents - parents submit to their children's desires; they make few demands & use little punishment
    • Authoritative Parents - parents are both demanding & responsive; they exert control by setting rules & enforcing them, but they also explain the reasons for the rules & encourage open discussion when making the rules & allow exceptions
  26. Secure/Insecure Attachment
    • Secure = in their mother's presence infants play comfortably, happily exploring their new environment; when she leaves they become distressed; when she returns, the seek contact with her
    • Insecure = infants avoiding attachment marked either by anxiety or avoidance of trusting relationships
  27. Primary & Secondary Sex Characteristics
    • Primary = the body structures (ovaries, testes, & external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
    • Secondary = non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts & hips, male voice quality, & body hair
  28. Frontal Lobe Development
    • Most rapid growth from ages 3 to 6
    • Enable rational planning
  29. Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
    • 1.  Preconventional Morality = before age 9; focus is self-interest; obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete awards; Ex:  if you save your wife, you'll be a hero
    • 2.  Conventional Morality = early adolescence; focus is to uphold laws & rules to gain social approval or maintain social order; Ex:  if you steal the drug, everyone will think you're a criminal
    • 3.  Postconventional Morality = adolescence & beyond; focus is actions reflect belief in basic rights & self-denied ethical principles
  30. Telomeres
    • Tips of chromosomes that wear down with age; this wear is accentuated by smoking, obesity, or stress
    • As they shorten, aging cells may die without being replaced with perfect genetic replicas
  31. Longitudinal & Cross-Sectional
    • Longitudinal = research in which the same people are restudied & retested over a long period
    • Cross-Sectional = studies in which people of different ages are compared with one another
  32. Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence
    • Crystallized = our accumulated knowledge & verbal skills; tends to increase with age
    • Fluid = our ability to reason speedily & abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
  33. Pavlov's Experiment
    • Neutral Stimulus = a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
    • Unconditioned Stimulus = a stimulus that unconditionally - naturally & automatically - triggers a response
    • Unconditioned Response = an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (such as food in the mouth)
    • Conditioned Stimulus = an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after associateion with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
    • Conditioned Response = a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus
  34. Extinction
    • The diminishing of a conditioned response
    • Occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditional stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus
    • Occurs in operant conditioning when response is no longer reinforced
  35. Spontaneous Recovery
    The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
  36. Generalization
    The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
  37. Discrimination
    In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus & stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
  38. Operant Conditioning
    A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
  39. Reinforcement Schedules
    A pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforcded
  40. Law Of Effect
    Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, & that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
  41. Negative Reinforcement
    • Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli which is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response
    • Not punishment
  42. Classical Conditioning
    • A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli & anticipate events
    • Ex:  Pavlov's dog
  43. Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation
    • Intrinsic = a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
    • Extrinsic = a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
  44. Modeling
    • Process of observing & imitating a specific behavior
    • Ex:  learning our native language
  45. Shaping
    An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer & closer approximations of the desired behavior
  46. Observational Learning
    • Learning by observing others
    • Learn without direct experience by watching & imitating others
    • Ex:  know not to touch a hot oven by watching someone else burn themselves on it
  47. Essay

    Evolutionary Perspective - Sex
    • Women's approach to sex is usually more relational & men's more recreational
    • Nature selects behaviors that increase the likelihood of sending one's genes into the future
  48. Essay

    Individualist/Collectivist Cultures
    • Individualist:
    • Self = independent (identity from individual traits)
    • Life Task = discover & express one's uniqueness
    • What Matters = me - personal achievement & fulfillment, rights & liberties, self-esteem
    • Coping Method = change reality
    • Morality = defined by individuals (self-based)
    • Relationships = many, often temporary or casual; confrontation acceptable
    • Attributing Behavior = behavior reflects one's personality & attitudes
    • Collectivist:
    • Self = interdependent (identity from belonging)
    • Life Task = maintain connections, fit in, perform role
    • What Matters = us - group goals & solidarity; social responsibilities & relationships; family duty
    • Coping Method = accommodate to reality
    • Morality = defined by social networks (duty-based)
    • Relationships = few, close & enduring; harmony valued
    • Attributing Behavior = behavior reflects social norms & roles
  49. Essay

    • An emotional tie with another person
    • Shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver & showing distress on separation
    • Secure & Insecure
    • Infants become attached to those - typically their parents - who are comfortable & familiar
  50. Essay

    Parenting Styles
    • Authoritarian Parents
    • Permissive Parents
    • Authoritative Parents
  51. Essay

    Kohlberg & Erikson's Stages
    • Kohlberg:
    • Preconventional Morality
    • Conventional Morality
    • Postconventional Morality

    • Erikson:
    • Infancy
    • Toddlerhood
    • preschool
    • Elementary School
    • Adolescence
    • Young Adulthood
    • Middle Adulthood
    • Late Adulthood
  52. Essay

    • The process of observing & imitating a specific behavior
    • Observational learning
    • How we learn our native languages & various other specific behaviors by observing & imitating others
    • Mirror Neurons = frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so; the brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation & empathy
Card Set
Psychology Exam #2
Psychology Exam #2
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