Bio Exam II.1 Plasmodial and Cellular Slime Molds

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Bio Exam II.1 Plasmodial and Cellular Slime Molds
2014-03-04 11:47:41
Plant Kingdom
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  1. Why are they called plasmodial?
    the vegetative portion is a sheet of protoplasm (often fan-shaped and different colors)
  2. Explain plasmodial slime molds. 
    (-walls? type of cell? nucleus? movement?)
    -no cell wall, but there is a plasma membrane

    -eukaryotic cell; has nuclei (the size of the slime mold determines the amount of nuclei)

    -creeps like an amoeba (moves in one direction)
  3. How do they appear?

    Explain the cytoplasm.

    Explain movement of some.
    they appear to have veins going through them; called veins

    solidified cytoplasm

    in some, moves in one direction, stops, and moves in another direction
  4. What is the advantage of the movement of moving in one direction and then another?
    • mixing chemicals
    • - they feed on things similarly to amoebas. As it is broken down, cytoplasmic streaming helps distribute it. 

    • commnication
    • - synchronous dividing of nuclei
  5. Where do they live?
    in the soil, leaf litter

    they really don't like light; not really seen on the surface of the their habitat, but may come out at night

    As long as there is good temperature, the conditions are favorable, and there is water, they grow and live
  6. What are bad conditions for plasmodial slime molds?

    What do they do?
    if food is short and the plasmodium dries out, the temperature is incorrect

    The plasmodium forms clumps--> forms sporangia to ensure that the organism survives
  7. The nuclei in plasmodium is __. How?
    • diploid
    • through meiosis--> haploid spores
  8. Explain the spores?
    • has plasmodial cell walls--> germinates to amoeba-like cells (mixamoebas or flagellated swarm cells)
    • - can be either depending on the presence of water
    • water= flagellated
    • lack of water= unflagellated
  9. What do these spores act like?
    • they act like gametes/ cells pair up and fuse
    • can also do mitosis to build a population
  10. Cytoplasmic fusion= __

    nuclear fusion= __

    There is no __ leading to __.
    • plasmogamy
    • karyogamy

    • cytokinesis
    • a multinucleate structure
  11. What are the parts of the sorocarp?
    the sorus (group of spores)

    the sorophore (stalk)
  12. A whole bunch of cells in __ can do what?

    round up and secrete cell wall made of cellulose
  13. What is the life cycle of a cellular slime mold
    sorocarp--> forms spores ---germination--> myxamoebae (vegetative state)--> a or b

    • a: microcyst (altermate)
    • b: aggregation--> c or d

    c: macrocyst

    d--> formation of psudoplasmodium--> pseudoplasmodium--> sorocarp
  14. In terms of nuclei, what are myxamoebae?

    What state are they?

    vegetative state
  15. How can macrocyst turn into myxamoebae?
    syngamy, meiosis
  16. Define aggregation?

    In aggregation, what are the cells doing?

    In a macrocyst, what can happen?
    whole bunch of cells that stream to the center of the cell, where it is the most dense

    moving toward the most dense region

    some cells get confused and carry out meiosis
  17. Once they reach a particular density, what happens?
    Once they reach a particular density, there is release of acrasin (cAMP), which is released in pulses that diffuse out to the population
  18. Where is cAMP mostly? Explain.
    more cAMP in the center; pauses; releases its own cells; move when pulses are released
  19. From aggregation--> __

    The length of the center is __.

    What do the cells start doing?

    It becomes a __, acting as a __.
    formation of psedoplasmodium

    1 mm long

    cells start specializing and adhering to one another

    acts as a multicellular organism
  20. Formation of pseudoplasmodium--> __

    What is happening?

    the cells are no longer dividing at this point; it is around 1 mm long
  21. From the pseudoplasmodium--> __.
    sorocarp (haploid cells)
  22. __ does not occur in sorocarp development. What is here is a way of __.

    way of distributing cells
  23. What is the economic importance?

    can be classified as decomposers