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What is the general organization of the digestive tract ?
- Musclaris externa
- Adventitia / Serosa
What layer is the Mucosa / Mucous Membrane ? Does it possess lamina propria ? If Muscularis mucosae is present , where is it located ?
If present it is only in the tubular portion of the digestive tract
Where is the submucosa located ? What type of fibers are found in this layer ? Does it house large vessels and nerves ?
It is beneath the Mucosa
Elastic fibers and interwoven collagen fibers
Which layer of the digestive tract provides it with mobility and helps attach it to other structures ?
Adventitia / Serosa
Where can the Muscularis externa be located ? What is its general purpose ?
Superior to the Mucosa and Submucosa
A supporting structure
Where the Adventitia ?
It is the last layer surrounded by mesothelium
What is the external surface covered by ?
Where is the vermillion border ? What is its color ? What type of tissue can be found here ?
Translucent non keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Are there lamina propria in the lip ? What does the lamina propria project into to form ?
overlying epithelium to form "Papillae"
What type of glands do you find when looking at the inner lip ? What is the name of skeletal muscle is around the lips ? What type of epithelial tissue is found here ?
Mixed mucoserous glands
Wet stratified squamous
What layer is the tongue missing ?
where are the papillae located on the tongue ? In the anterior 2/3 or at the posterior 1/3 ?
What makes up the mucosal ridges and mound like elevations on the tongue ?
underlying lymphatic nodules of the lingual tonsils
Where can taste buds be distributed ?
Soft palate , glossopalatine arch , pharynx , and epiglottis
What structure does the taste buds usually take ?
- Taste Pore
- supporting Sustentacular cells
- Sensory Cells
- Basal Cells
- Taste hairs / Microvilli
Where are the taste sensations located on the tongue ?
- Sweet - Tip of Tongue
- Salty - Tip of Tongue
- Bitter - Back , Circumvallate of tongue
- Sour - Sides of Tongue
What makes up the bulk of the tooth and surrounds the pulp chamber ?
What is the 80% of inorganic material that makes up the dentin ? What is the 20% organic substance ?
What gives dentin its radially striated appearance ?
What type of tissue creating cells do Dentinal tubules contain ? What are their function ?
Lays down the organic matrix of Dentin
What are some things dentin is sensitive to ? What type of cell is known to transmit impulses to nerve tissue ?
- Hydrogen Ion concentration - Acid
Where can enamel be found ? Is it considered the hardest tissue in the body ?
covering the dentin of teeth
What is enamel generally made out of ?
Calcium salts in the form of apatite crystals
What cells produce enamel ? Why can't enamel be formed after the tooth erupts ?
The ameloblasts are lost during eruption
What type of tissue lines the esophagus ? What layer can you find the esophageal glands in ?
Stratified squamous epithelium
What type of muscle is at the Upper 1/4 of the Esophagus , what type of muscle is at the lower 1/4 ?
- Upper 1/4 - skeletal muscle
- Lower 1/4 - smooth muscle
What are the numerous folds called in the stomach ? The gastric lining of the stomach is what epithelium ?
What are the gastric pits of foveolae in the stomach ?
tubular infoldings of the epithelium
What typed of glands are usually found in the stomach lining ?
- Pyloric glands
- Cardiac glands
- Gastric glands
What are the gastric glands composed of ?
- Mucous Neck Cells
- Zymogen (Chief) Cells
- Endocrine Cells
What do mucous neck cells produce ? What do Parietal cells produce ? What do zymogen (chief cells ) produce ?
What do the G-Cells of the pyloric gland do ?
they stimulate the function of Parietal Cells (HCl production) .
What does the lamina propria of the stomach contain ?
Collagen , Elastic Fibers , Lymphocytes , Plasma Cells , Eosinophils , Mast Cells
What does the submucosa of the stomach contain ?
Blood vessels , Lymphatics , eosinophils , lymphoid cells
What make up the Salivary glands ?
- Parotid gland
- Submaxillary gland
- Submandibular gland
- Sublingual gland
What cells make up the Salivary glands , mention there function ?
- Serous glands - mass of cells called Acinus
- Mucous cells- tubules capped with serous cells
- Myoepithelial cells- surround acini
What make the duct system ?
- Intercalated ducts -simple cuboidal
- Intralobular duct- multiple intercalated ducts
What type of epithelium is at the beginning of the Interlobular duct and at the end ?
Stratified cuboidal > Stratified columnar
What type of enzyme does the parotid gland produce ? What immune system component does it secrete ? What type of acinar gland is it ? Mixed serous or pure serous ?
What type acinar gland is the Submandibular and Submaxillary glands ? What does immunity component do these glands secrete ? Mixed serous or pure serous ?
What type of acinar gland is the sublingual gland ?Mixed serous or pure serous or pure mucous ?
What is Lactoferrin and where does it come from ?
binds iron , keeps bacteria from growing
secreted by the salivary glands
What does the parasympathetic nervous system produce in terms of saliva ?
What does the sympathetic nervous system produce in terms of saliva ?
Alot of saliva with little organic material
Little saliva with more organic material
What is the endocrine function of the Islet of Langerhans do in the pancreas ?
Delta cells -
- Produce hormones
- Alpha cells- Glucagon
- Beta Cells-Insulin
- Delta cells -inhibit Gastrin , GRH and TRH
What is the exocrine function of the pancreas ? What are the function of centroacinar cells ?
produce bicarbonate solution and mucin
Why does the pancreas have zymogen cells ?
Protein secreting cells
What nerve controls the release secretion of the pancreas ? What two chemicals control pancreatic secretion ?
Vagus Nerve - X
Secretin and cholecystokinin
What cells make Secretin and cholecystokinin ?
Enteroendocrine cells of the duodenal mucosa
What is the function of secretin ?
It is there to neutralize chyme
What is the function of Cholecystokinin ?
It promotes enzyme rich fluid for protein breakdown
What is kwashiorkor ?
It is a disorder where the acinar cells atrophy due to malnutrition
What is the Glisson's Capsule of the liver ? What does the portal triad consist of ? what is the space of disse ?
reticular fiber network
Portal vein , hepatic artery , bile duct
space that seperates sinsoids
What are kupffer cells of the liver ?
phagocytic cells found in the luminal walls
What are Ito Cells of the liver ?
Fat storing cels
What are the general functions of the Liver ?
- -Protein synthesis
- -Bile secretion
- -Metabolic Storage
- -Metabolic functions - gluconeogenesis , deamination
- -Detoxification and Inactivation
What is the livers storage function ? Where does a majority of blood come from to the liver ? where does the rest come from ?
It gets the blood from the intestine
What is the function of the gallbladder ? What induces its function ? What type of epithelium ?
It concentrates the bile
what is the Flow of bile ?
Hepatocytes > bile canaliculi > bile ductules > bile ducts > cystic duct > commpn bile duct of duodenum
What is the sphincter of Oddi ?
Bile duct sphincter to the duodenum