Digestive System I,II,II

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Digestive System I,II,II
2014-03-04 15:27:01

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  1. What is the general organization of the digestive tract ?
    • Mucosa
    • Submucosa
    • Musclaris externa
    • Adventitia / Serosa
  2. What layer is the Mucosa / Mucous Membrane ? Does it possess lamina propria ? If Muscularis mucosae is present , where is it located ?
    Innermost layer 


    If present it is only in the tubular portion of the digestive tract
  3. Where is the submucosa located ? What type of fibers are found in this layer ? Does it house large vessels and nerves ?
    It is beneath the Mucosa 

    Elastic fibers and interwoven collagen fibers

  4. Which layer of the digestive tract provides it with mobility and helps attach it to other structures ?
    Muscularis Externa
    Adventitia / Serosa
  5. Where can the Muscularis externa be located ? What is its general purpose ?
    Superior to the Mucosa and Submucosa

    A supporting structure
  6. Where the Adventitia ?
    It is the last layer surrounded by mesothelium
  7. What is the external surface covered by ?
    Thin skin
  8. Where is the vermillion border ? What is its color ? What type of tissue can be found here ?
    Lip border


    Translucent non keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  9. Are there lamina propria in the lip ? What does the lamina propria project into to form ?

    overlying epithelium to form "Papillae"
  10. What type of glands do you find when looking at the inner lip ? What is the name of skeletal muscle is around the lips ? What type of epithelial tissue is found here ?
    Mixed mucoserous glands 

    Obicularis Oris 

    Wet stratified squamous
  11. What layer is the tongue missing ?
    Muscularis Externa
    Adventitia /Serosa
  12. where are the papillae located on the tongue ?  In the anterior 2/3 or at the posterior 1/3 ?
    anterior 2/3
  13. What makes up the mucosal ridges and mound like elevations on the tongue ?
    underlying lymphatic nodules of the lingual tonsils
  14. Where can taste buds be distributed ?
    Soft palate , glossopalatine arch , pharynx , and epiglottis
  15. What structure does the taste buds usually take ?
    • Taste Pore 
    • supporting Sustentacular cells
    • Sensory Cells
    • Basal Cells
    • Taste hairs / Microvilli
  16. Where are the taste sensations located on the tongue ?
    • Sweet - Tip of Tongue
    • Salty - Tip of Tongue
    • Bitter - Back , Circumvallate of tongue
    • Sour - Sides of Tongue
  17. What makes up the bulk of the tooth and surrounds the pulp chamber ?
  18. What is the 80% of inorganic material that makes up the dentin ? What is the 20% organic substance ?
    Hydroxyapatite crystals

  19. What gives dentin its radially striated appearance ?
    Dentinal tubules
  20. What type of tissue creating cells do Dentinal tubules contain ? What are their function ?

    Lays down the organic matrix of Dentin
  21. What are some things dentin is sensitive to ? What type of cell is known to transmit impulses to nerve tissue ?
    • Cold
    • Pain
    • Hydrogen Ion concentration - Acid 

  22. Where can enamel be found ? Is it considered the hardest tissue in the body ?
    covering the dentin of teeth

  23. What is enamel generally made out of ?
    Calcium salts in the form of apatite crystals
  24. What cells produce enamel ? Why can't enamel be formed after the tooth erupts ?

    The ameloblasts are lost during eruption
  25. What type of tissue lines the esophagus ? What layer can you find the esophageal glands in ?
    Stratified squamous epithelium 

  26. What type of muscle is at the Upper 1/4 of the Esophagus , what type of muscle is at the lower 1/4 ?
    • Upper 1/4 - skeletal muscle 
    • Lower 1/4 - smooth muscle
  27. What are the numerous folds called in the stomach ? The gastric lining of the stomach is what epithelium ?

    Simple Columnar
  28. What are the gastric pits of foveolae in the stomach ?
    tubular infoldings of the epithelium
  29. What typed of glands are usually found in the stomach lining ?
    • Pyloric glands 
    • Cardiac glands 
    • Gastric glands
  30. What are the gastric glands composed of ?
    • Mucous Neck Cells
    • Zymogen (Chief) Cells
    • Endocrine Cells
  31. What do mucous neck cells produce ? What do Parietal cells produce ? What do zymogen (chief cells ) produce ?
    Acid Mucin


  32. What do the G-Cells of the pyloric gland do ?
    they stimulate the function of Parietal Cells (HCl production) .
  33. What does the lamina propria of the stomach contain ?
    Collagen , Elastic Fibers , Lymphocytes , Plasma Cells , Eosinophils , Mast Cells
  34. What does the submucosa of the stomach contain ?
    Blood vessels , Lymphatics , eosinophils , lymphoid cells
  35. What make up the Salivary glands ?
    • Parotid gland
    • Submaxillary gland
    • Submandibular gland
    • Sublingual gland
  36. What cells make up the Salivary glands , mention there function ?
    • Serous glands - mass of cells called Acinus
    • Mucous cells- tubules capped with serous cells
    • Myoepithelial cells- surround acini
  37. What make the duct system ?
    • Intercalated ducts -simple cuboidal
    • Intralobular duct- multiple intercalated ducts
  38. What type of epithelium is at the beginning of the Interlobular duct and at the end ?
    Stratified cuboidal > Stratified columnar
  39. What type of enzyme does the parotid gland produce ? What immune system component does it secrete ? What type of acinar gland is it ? Mixed serous or pure serous ?

    immunoglobulin (Ig-4)

    Branched Acinar

    Pure Serous
  40. What type acinar gland is the Submandibular and Submaxillary glands ? What does immunity component do these glands secrete ? Mixed serous or pure serous ?
    Tubuloacinar glands


  41. What type of acinar gland is the sublingual gland ?Mixed serous or pure serous or pure mucous ?

    Pure mucous
  42. What is Lactoferrin and where does it come from  ?
    binds iron , keeps bacteria from growing

    secreted by the salivary glands
  43. What does the parasympathetic nervous system produce in terms of saliva ?

    What does the sympathetic nervous system produce in terms of saliva ?
    Alot of saliva with little organic material

    Little saliva with more organic material
  44. What is the endocrine function of the Islet of Langerhans do in the pancreas ?
    Alpha cells- 
    Beta Cells-
    Delta cells -
    • Produce hormones 
    • Alpha cells- Glucagon
    • Beta Cells-Insulin
    • Delta cells -inhibit Gastrin , GRH and TRH
  45. What is the exocrine function of the pancreas  ? What are the function of centroacinar cells ?
    Digestive enzymes 

    produce bicarbonate solution and mucin
  46. Why does the pancreas have zymogen cells ?
    Protein secreting cells
  47. What nerve controls the release secretion of the pancreas ? What two chemicals control pancreatic secretion ?
    Vagus Nerve  - X

    Secretin and cholecystokinin
  48. What cells make Secretin and cholecystokinin ?
    Enteroendocrine cells of the duodenal mucosa
  49. What is the function of secretin ?
    It is there to neutralize chyme
  50. What is the function of Cholecystokinin ?
    It promotes enzyme rich fluid for protein breakdown
  51. What is kwashiorkor ?
    It is a disorder where the acinar cells atrophy due to malnutrition
  52. What is the Glisson's Capsule of the liver ? What does the portal triad consist of ? what is the space of disse ?
    reticular fiber network

    Portal vein , hepatic artery , bile duct 

    space that seperates sinsoids
  53. What are kupffer cells of the liver ?
    phagocytic cells found in the luminal walls
  54. What are Ito Cells of the liver ?
    Fat storing cels
  55. What are the general functions of the Liver ?
    • -Protein synthesis
    • -Bile secretion
    • -Metabolic Storage 
    • -Metabolic functions - gluconeogenesis , deamination
    • -Detoxification and Inactivation
  56. What is the livers storage function ? Where does a majority of blood come from to the liver ? where does the rest come from ?
    It gets the blood from the intestine 

    Portal Vein

    Hepatic artery
  57. What is the function of the gallbladder ? What induces its function ? What type of epithelium ?
    It concentrates the bile


    simple columnar
  58. what is the Flow of bile ?
    Hepatocytes > bile canaliculi  > bile ductules > bile ducts > cystic duct > commpn bile duct  of duodenum
  59. What is the sphincter of Oddi ?
    Bile duct sphincter to the duodenum