Blood Pressure, Pulse, ECG
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What does ECG (EKG) stand for?
Is this a normal ECG reading
What does the P wave represent?
Atrial depolarization (atria contracting)
What does the QRS complex represent?
Ventricular depolarization (ventricles contracting)
What does the T wave represent?
Ventricular repolarization (ventricles relaxing)
What is a U wave?
Small wave after the T wave.
If the U wave is present, what is it thought to represent?
Repolarization of the papillary muscles
Name the two instruments needed to take blood pressure.
Name the artery just above the elbow used in taking blood pressure.
If someone's blood pressure were 130/100, what would that person's:
Systolic pressure be?
Diastolic pressure be?
Pulse pressure be?
Mean arterial pressure be?
- 130 mm Hg
- 100 mm Hg
- 30 mm Hg
- 110 mm Hg
Define systolic pressure.
Pressure in arteries when ventricles are in systole (contracting).
Define diastolic pressure.
Pressure in arteries when ventricles are in diastole (relaxing).
Define pulse pressure.
Systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure; pressure of pulse.
Define mean arterial pressure. How do you find it?
Pressure at which blood actually moves through the arteries. (1/3 x pulse pressure) + diastolic pressure
Describe in detail how to take blood pressure.
Find brachial artery. Wrap cuff around patient's arm just above the elbow and brachial artery. Close valve. Patient should have arm relaxed and supported. Put bell of stethoscope over brachial artery and ear pieces in ear. Close valve. Pump air into cuff so the pressure is greater than systolic pressure of brachial artery. Open valve slowly so that pressure in cuff drops at 2 mm Hg per second. Listen for Korotkoff sounds (note when they start and end. When the sounds stop, open the valve to deflate the cuff.
How tightly should the cuff of the sphygmomanometer be wrapped around someone's arm?
2 fingers should be able to fit in between cuff and arm.
How quickly should the cuff of the sphygmomanometer be deflated when taking someone's blood pressure? (This, of course, is until you get to the diastolic pressure.)
As soon as you get the diastolic pressure you should deflate the cuff because circulation is being cut off.
What are the "blood pressure sounds" called?
If someone's blood pressure were 160/100, should you hear the Korotkoff sounds when the pressure in the cuff is:
Above 160 mm Hg?
Between 100 and 160 mm Hg?
Below 100 mm Hg?
Why can't you feel pulse in any artery?
Because the artery has to be large enough, have enough of a difference in pressure between systolic and diastolic points, and most importantly be close enough to the skin.
Surge of blood from heart being pushed into arteries.
Define radial pulse.
Pulse in radial artery; may be slightly slower than apical pulse; lag time between beating of heart and blood going to the arteries.
Define apical pulse.
Number of heart beats.
Define pulse deficit.
Large difference between apical pulse and radial pulse; may indicate heart abnormalities.
Name the arteries in which pulse can be felt.
- Temporal artery
- Facial artery
- Common carotid arteries
- Brachial artery
- Radial artery
- Femoral artery
- Popliteal artery
- Posterior tibial artery
- Dorsalis pedis artery
Should the pulse deficit be closer to zero or a high number?
The pulse deficit is large difference between the radial pulse and apical pulse but if the difference is closer to zero that may indicate a heart problem.
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