Comm mid term

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scngk2011
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265058
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Comm mid term
Updated:
2014-03-04 18:03:38
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communcations 100
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communication notes to memorize for the test mainly definitional
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  1. Human communication?
    transactional process in which people generate meaning through the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages in specific contexts, influenced by individual and societal forces and embedded in culture.
  2. Components of Human Communication
    • create meaning
    • participants- two or more people interact
    • channel
    • Noice
    • feedback
    • Individual forces
    • societal forces
    • Culture
    • Context
  3. Meaning Creation
    • content and relationship meaning
    • Content= denotative and connotative meaning. Denotative: concrete meaning of the message and connotative describes the meanings suggested by or associated with messages and the emotion behind them
    • Relationship meaning= describes what the message conveys about the relationship between the parties.
  4. Setting?
    includes the location where the communication occurs, environmental conditions, time of day, ot day of the week, and the proximity of the communicators.
  5. Participants
    two or more people interact
  6. Channel
    means through which a message is conveyed. channel used can affect how the message is received such as texting
  7. Noise
    refers to any stimulus that can interfere with or degrade the quality of a message. External signals such as loud music or voices.
  8. Feedback
    response o a message. lets sender know the message was received
  9. Models of Human Communication
    • linear model: assumes that communication went from the sender to the receiver and reverse
    • Society model
  10. How is communication a societal model
    • transactional process: each person is a sender/reciever
    • ongoing process
    • influenced by relationships and previous events
  11. Enforced by individual forces
    • field of experience: such as education and experiences
    • individual forces: identity, age, sex, race, ethnicity.
    • Societal forces: political, econonmic, social structure
    • Culture and content: learned patterns and behaviors, content such as setting and participants
  12. What is perception?
    • selection: consciously or unconsciously, you attend to just a narrow range of the arra of sensory information available and ignore the remainder
    • organization:cognitive representation...describes human ability ot form mental models of the world the live in_ protypes (most typical or representative example of a person or concept)_interpersonal scipts (ia  relatively fixed sequence of events you expect to occur during interactions with others....categorization: label, stereotyping
    • interpretation: frames (structures that shape how people interpret their perceptions), attribution theory (explains the process we use to judge our own and other's behaviors)
  13. What is identity?
    • identity exists at both individual and societal levels
    • identities are both fixed and dynamic
    • identities are created through interaction
    • identities must be seen in context
  14. parts of individual, perception and identity
    • reflected appraisal: looking glass
    • social comparision: self fulfilling prophecy (when an individual expects something to occur) self concept (perception of your unique characteristics) Self Esteem
  15. Ethnics of perceiving and communicating about identities
    • stereotyping:board generalizations 
    • prejudice: strong negative feeling about a group
  16. Verbal Communication
    refers to the written/oral words we exchange
  17. Importance of verbal communication
    meaning is created= verbal, plays role in identity, relationship development, languages spoken, identity
  18. Verbal communication and the individual
    • instrumental: obtain what you need
    • regulatory: control or regulate behavior of others
    • inform: communicate information/ report facts
    • Heuristic: acquire knowledge and understanding
    • interactional: establishes and defines school relationships in both interpersonal and public setting
    • imaginative: used to express oneself artistically or creatively..drama, poetry, stories
  19. Semantics
    • denotative meaning: literal meaning of the word
    • Connotative: interpretative meaning attached to a rule
    • pragmactices: language use field of study that looks at how language is used in specific situations to accomplish goal- speech acts (say or do things with words) conversational rules (govern ways in which we organize conversation) contextual rules (use of language varies depending on content
  20. Influences on  verbal communication
    • age
    • gender
    • ethnity
    • and other identities of verbal communication
  21. Phonology
    study of sound that compose individual languages and how those sounds communicate meaning
  22. Syntax
    rules that govern word order
  23. Nonverbal codes
    signals are distinct, organized means of expression that conssit of both symbols for their
  24. Kinesics
    system of studying nonverbal communication sent by the body including gestures, postures, movement, facial expressions, and eye behavior
  25. The body and nonverbal cues
    • Gestures: such as pointing, waving, and holding up hands
    • illustrators: signals that accompany speech to clarify or emphasize the verbal messages
    • Adapters: gestures we use to manage our emotions
    • immediacy: how close or involved people appear to be with each other
    • relaxation: the degree of tension ones body displays
  26. Nonverbal cues and the face
    paralinguistic: vocal aspects of nonverbal communication
  27. Non verbal and voice
    • voice qualities: speed pitch rhythm, vocal range, and articulation 
    • Vocalization: sounds we utter that do no have the structure of language
  28. Time and space
    • chronemics: study of the ways people use time as a message
    • proxemics: study of how people use spatial cues, including interpersonal distance, territoriality, and other space relationships
  29. Proxemics
    • intimate distance: 0-18 inches
    • personal distance: 4-12 inches
    • social distance: 4-12 feet
    • public distance:12-25 feet
  30. Haptics
    • professional touch: people who must touch others as part of their livelihood
    • social polite touch: part of daily interaction 
    • friendship touch: intimate than social touch and usually conveys warms, closeness, and caring
    • love intimate touch: romantic partners
  31. Communication information
    • regulation interaction
    • expressing and managing intimacy
    • establishing social control
    • signaling service task functions
  32. Importance of intercultural communication
    • increased opportunities for intercultural contact
    • enhanced business effectivness
    • improved intergroup relations
    • enhanced self-awareness
  33. Intercultural communication and the individual
    • intercultural communication on the borders
    • influence of cultural values on communicaion
    • a dialectic approach
  34. Individual intercultural, communication and society
    • political, historical, and societal forces
    • intercultural communication and power
  35. Improving your intercultural communication skills
    • increase motivation
    • increase your knowledge of self and others
    • avoid stereotypes
  36. intercultural communication
    communication that occurs in interactions between people who are culturally different
  37. Boader dwellers through travel
    • voluntary short term travelers: study abroad students
    • Voluntary long term travelers: immigrants
    • involuntary: temporary refugees from war, famine, or economic hardship
    • permanent refugees from war famine, or economic hardship
  38. Interpersonal communication
    • interpersonal communication
    • involves interdependent parties
    • continuum
    • relational
  39. Interpersonal communication, relationships, and in individal
    • influences on relationship development
    • communicating in friendships and romantic relationships
  40. society, power, courtship, and marriage
    • society, power, and romantic relationships
    • society, power and friendship
  41. Improving your maintenance skills in long -distance friendships
    • maintains frequent contact
    • encourage openness
    • engage in positivity
    • offer social support
  42. romance termination strategies
    • negative idenity mangement:communicating in ways that arrouse negative emotions in order to make the other person upset enough to agree to break off the relationship
    • deescalation: come back together in the future
    • justification
    • positive tones
    • behavioral
  43. Friend termination
    • withdrawal
    • machiavellian tactics
  44. developing social influence skills
    • secondary: goals that constrain or enhance the message they use to accomplish their goals.. indentity goals (related to ones peronal concept) interaction goals (concertn rules for how a person should behave) Relational, personal
    • primary: goals related to the outcome you want to take such as gaining assistance, sharing an activity, changing behavior, andd chaning the terms of a relationship
  45. Complicance gaining messages
    communication strategies people use to influence one another
  46. Resisting other's influence
    • reciprocation: repay others for what they give us
    • consistency principle
    • social proof
    • liking
  47. managing aversive communication interactiosn
    • deception
    • jeaousy
    • hurtful messages
  48. Relationship threats
    • relational transgressions: fundamental relationship rules are avoided
    • temptations:
  49. Influences on the perceived hurtfulness of a message
    • relationship satisfaction
    • intentionality
    • framing
    • self-esteem
    • competence
    • context
  50. relational infidelity
    a server relations transgression in which one or both partners engage in extra dyadic behaviors that violate relationship rules of monogamy and exclusivity
  51. Emotional infidelity
    behaviors suc as flirting, dating, spending time together, and falling in love with someone other than one's partner= cheating
  52. physcial infidelity
    sexual activities that are committed with someone other than one's partner and includ acts ranging from kidding to sexual intercourse= acts of cheating
  53. interpersonal violence
    • physical violence against a partner or a child
    • batting relationships in which one indvidual uses violence as a way to control and dominate his or her partner
  54. What is Conflict
    • interdependence
    • interests
    • incompatibilities
    • limited resources
  55. what causes conflict
    • behaviors
    • personality
    • relationship rules
  56. Conflict styles
    • styles: describes the pattern of tactics an individual uses repetitively across parties and contexts- competive, cooperative, direct conflict, indirect conflict- avoiding, yielding
    • tactic: an individual behavior a person uses when engaged in a conflict
  57. cascade model
    cacade= way in which one [erson's negavtive conflict bahavior can trigger another person's negative behavior in such a way that their conglict patterns escalate eventually leading to a decline in relationship satisfaction
  58. four horsemen of apocalypse
    • criticism: attacking partners's personality
    • defensiveness: attempts by the partner to protect his or her identity
    • contempt: behavior that is designed to insult and psychologically harm the partner
    • stonewalling: one or both partners stop communicating, refuse to respond to each other's communication effors
  59. Indvidual, conflict, management, and society
    • power
    • culture

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