E, E & B II

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E, E & B II
2014-03-04 22:28:35
Bio 213

2nd set of 1st exam
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  1. Selection that changes in one direction
    * acts in changing environment
    * population mean shifts to new phenotype, better adapted to altered environment
    Directional selection
  2. Selection that changes with 2 factors
    * bimodial distribution graph
    * acts if two or more phenotypes of high fitness separated by intermediate phenotype of low fitness
    * selects or polymorphisms
    Disruptive Selection
  3. Selection with an unchanging environment
    * Narrows graph
    * acts against extreme phenotypes
    * stable environment
    * reduces variation
    Stabilizing selection
  4. What 3 forces increase genetic variation
    • mutation
    • gene flow
    • recombination
  5. What selection reduces genetic variation by reducing all but optimal phenotypes?
  6. What was the agent of selection for the peppered moths?
    bird predation
  7. In what way was stabilizing selection taking place with the peppered moths?
    in rural areas, environment did not change
  8. In what way was directional selection taking place with the peppered moths?
    Phenotype in industrial area
  9. Under what type of scenario might disruptive selection occur with the peppered moths?
    if trees varied, some lichen some still dark
  10. Selection to obtain _______->increase reproductive success
  11. * traits not directly associated with reproduction, but that increase chance of obtaining mate
    * size, color, ornamentation
    secondary sexual characteristics
  12. * competition for mates of opposite sex
    * usually contests among males (combat or ritualized displays)
    Intrasexual selection
  13. * individuals of one sex (usually females) choose mate
    * often depends on showiness of males
    Intersexual selection(mate choice)
  14. what is a subset of natural selection?
    sexual selection
  15. peacocks
    gecko with orange throat thing
    examples of intersexual selection
  16. Gorrillas
    animals with horns
    intrasexual examples
  17. * much genetic variation hidden from selection as recessive alleles
    ** recessive alleles maintained & propagated in heterozygous individuals
  18. * genetic variation that confers no selective advantage, not affected by natural selection
    *alleles may increase or decrease via genetic drift
    Neutral variation
  19. * natural selection maintains stable frequencies of two or more phenotypic forms in population
    * results in balanced polymorphism
    balancing selection
  20. 3 ways to preserve genetic variation against natural selelction
    • 1. Diploidy
    • 2. Neutral selection
    • 3. balancing selection
  21. Another word for balancing selection
    balanced polymorphism
  22. 2 ways that balancing selection(polymorphism) works
    • 1. heterozygote advantage
    • 2. frequency-dependent selection
  23. selection will maintain two or more alleles at that locus
    * heterozygotes have greater fitness than homozygotes
    Heterozygote Advantage
  24. * selection favors least common phenotype
    * fitness of any phenotype declines if it becomes too common in population
    Frequency-Dependent Selection
  25. Example of heterozygote advantage (balancing)
    sickle-cell allele
  26. example of frequency-dependent selection
    predator search image for most common prey
  27. example of diploidy
    • CrCr-red
    • CrCw-red
    • dominance
  28. Sickle cell is the abnormal form of __________
  29. What two things make sickle cell bad?
    • insufficient O2 transport
    • clog blood vessels with abnormal shape
  30. What kind of mutation is sickle cell caused by?
    • point mutation
    • base-pair substitution
    • missense
  31. name 3 base-pair substitutions of point mutation
    • silent
    • missense
    • nonsense
  32. Type of evolution where unrelated organisms have similar structures because of similar environments
    convergent evolution
  33. Convergent evolution is result of both:
    • Functional constraints
    • developmental constraints
  34. * imposed by laws of physics
    * ex. streamlined shape in fast-swimming animals
    functional constraints
  35. * genetic or developmental pathways that produce similar features
    * "deep homology" highly conserved regulatory genes
    *ex eyes
    Developmental constraints
  36. 2 examples of convergent evolution
    placenta vs. marsupials
  37. Selection only acts on __________  _______
    existing variation
  38. Evolution is limited by ______ constraints
  39. Adaptations are often __________
  40. * chance events and unpredictable environments
    role of chance
  41. Evolution is often best seen in the ___________ of organisms

    *panda's thumb
    Human's foot and back
  42. Evolution does not act to yield perfection, it acts to yield _____
  43. *behavior that reduces individual's fitness but increases fitness of other individuals in a group
  44. 3 Examples of Altruism
    • belding ground squirrel (alarm call to warn)
    • Naked Mole rats (only one female to reproduce)
    • Hymenoptera societies (ants, bees, wasps)
  45. How does altruism genes get passed on?
    alleles shared with close relatives
  46. * includes one's own fitness plus that of relatives
    * measured by your genes passed to next generation
    inclusive fitness
  47. explain
    • r: relatedness
    • B: gain in fitness by recipient(offspring gained)
    • C: loss in fitness to altruist(offspring lost)
  48. Individuals morphologically separate, but functionally interdependent
  49. 2 examples of eusociality
    • 1. cooperative care of young
    • 2. division of labor among individuals
  50. * sisters share more genes than usual between sisters
    * inclusive fitness of sterile workers increase by helping mother(queen) raise younger sisters
    *bees, wasps
  51. The only real taxonomic unit:
  52. Formation of new species (speciation) involves ________ ___________
    reproductive isolation
  53. * biological barriers that prevent successful mating between individuals of different species
    * barriers block gene flow between species and limit formation of interspecific hybrids
    reproductive isolation
  54. * prevents successful fertilization
    Prezygotic barriers
  55. 3 preventions for prezygotic barriers
    • 1. prevent from attempting to breed
    • 2. prevent successful mating
    • 3. prevent successful fertilization
  56. type of isolation that prevents individuals from attempting to mate
    habitat, temporal & behavioral isolation
  57. Type of isolation that prevents successful mating if attempted
    Mechanical isolation
  58. Type of isolation that prevents successful fertilization if mating completed
    gametic isolation
  59. * fertilization occurs, but prevents successful hybrid
    postzygotic barriers
  60. 2 ways postzygotic barriers work
    • reduces hybrid viability-reduces survival
    • reduces hybrid fertility
  61. * breeding at different times of day or season=no mating
    *skunks mating in winter vs summer
    Temporal isolation-prezygotic barrier
  62. * specific courtship behavior eliminates mating between closely related species
    *blue footed duck things
    Behavioral Isolation-prezygotic barrier
  63. * mating attempted, but morphological differences prevent success
    *snails(bradybaena) with different genital openings
    Mechanical isolation-prezygotic
  64. * mating occurs, but sperm not able to fertilize eggs of other species
    *Sea urchins
    gametic isolation-prezygotic
  65. zygote formed, but hybrid does not develop normally=low survival
    reduced hybrid viability-postzygotic
  66. hybrid survives, but is sterile (produce abnormal amount of gametes)
    Reduced hybrid fertility-postzygotic
  67. first-generation hybrids viable and fertile, but offspring of next generation are feeble and/or sterile
    *rice plants
    Hybrid breakdown-postzygotic
  68. 3 limitations of biological species concept
    • 1. asexual organisms
    • 2. fossils
    • 3. species that exhibit limited gene flow and hybridization-morphologically and ecologically distinct
  69. *species defined by body shape, size, structual
    * can be applied to asexual organisms and fossils
    * practical definition for most species
    Morphological species concept
  70. * species defined in terms of its ecological niche-role in ecosystem
    * can be applied to asexual species
    ecological species concept
  71. * species defined as a set of organisms with a unique genetic history
    * Smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor
    phylogenetic species concept
  72. * formation of new species
    * occurs via evolution of reproduction isolation
  73. two primary mechanisms for speciation
    • 1. allopatric speciation
    • 2. sympatric speciation
  74. Type of speciation:
    * geographic barriers interrupt gene flow
    * subdivided into two or populations
    * divided populations diverge genetically from each other
    * reproductive isolation develops
    * reproductive barrier established
    Allopatric Speciation
  75. in allopatric speciation populations diverge genetically due to:
    mutations, genetic drift, and/or natural selection
  76. When portion of population that is isolated from original population evolve
    *founder effect
    • colonization of remote area
    • * Galapagos finches
  77. * Isolation mechanisms develop within undivided population
    * no geographic sep. subset of population isolated
    Sympatric Speciation
  78. 3 ways sympatric speciation happens
    • 1. polyploidy
    • 2. habitat differentiation
    • 3. sexual selection
  79. * cell division errors that result in extra sets of chromosomes
    * primarily occurs in plants
  80. extra sets of chromosomes from single species
    * results in reproductive isolation from diploid parental species
    • autopolyploid
    • -polyploidy
    • -sympatric speciation
  81. extra sets of chromosomes derived from interbreeding of two species
    * can breed with only each other->new breed
    • allopolyploid
    • -polyploidy
    • -sympatric speciation
  82. * subpopulation exploits habitat or resource not used by parent population
    * results in reproductive isolation
    habitat differentiation-sympatric speciation
  83. * area where individuals of different closely related species meet and mate
    * region where species are not completely reproductively isolated
    • hybrid zones
    • -produces hybrid offspring
  84. 3 outcomes of species contact in hybrid zones
    • 1. reinforcement
    • 2. fusion
    • 3. stability
  85. * reproductive barriers strengthened over time
    * hybrids less fit than either parental species
    * prezygotic barriers strengthened-> reduces formation of less fit hybrids
    • Reinforcement
    • -hybrid zone
    • Annual phlox-butterflies don't like hybrid
  86. * reproductive barriers weakened over time
    * hybrids as fit as parent
    * two parent species can fuse into single species
    • Fusion
    • hybrid zone
  87. * continued formation of hybrids
    * hybrids have higher fitness than parents in environment of hybrid zone
    • Stability
    • hybrid zone
  88. 2 examples of tempo of evolution
    • 1. Phyletic Gradualism
    • 2. Punctuated Equilibrium
  89. * Darwin's view of evolution
    * continuous tempo of change
    * one species gradually transforms into another over long period of time
    phyletic gradualism
  90. * refinement of evolutionary theory of darwin
    * discontinuous tempo of change-sudden change
    * speciation occurs in small, isolated portion of population-rapid change
    * consistent in fossil record
    Punctuated equilibrium
  91. * preserved remnant or impression or organism that lived in past
    * most found in sedimentary rocks
    * biased in favor of species with "hard" parts
  92. Most common fossil in paleozootic era
  93. 2 atoms that fossils are dated by radiometric dating
    • 1. C14=5730 years
    • 2. U238= 4.5 billion years
  94. Name the 3 eons
    • Archaean
    • Proterozoic
    • Phanerozoic
  95. name the 3 eras in the Phanerozoic eon
    • paleozoic
    • mesozoic
    • cenozoic
  96. Name the eon: 4.6 bya-2.5 bya
    * first fossils-prokaryotes
    * stromatolites
    * cyanobacteria
  97. Name the eon: 2.5 bya-542 mya
    * origin of eukaryotes
    * multicellular eukaryotes
    * metazoans
  98. Name the eon: 542 mya-present
  99. Boundaries between eras correspond to major __________ events
  100. * first "period" in paleozoic
    * first abundant fossils
    * great increase in diversity
    * all major animal phyla appear
    Cambrain Period
  101. In what period was there a great increase in diversity and all major animal phyla appeared?
    Cambrian Period
  102. Where is the location of 80,000 fossils of life forms that no longer exist?
    Burgess shale in Canada
  103. Era and period first reptiles and seed plants
    • Carboniferous
    • paleozoic
  104. Period and Era for first amphibians and insects
    • devonian
    • paleozoic
  105. period and era of first terrestrial life
    • ordovician
    • paleozoic
  106. period and era of the Cambrian explosion
    • Cambrian
    • paleozoic
  107. period and era of origin of humans
    • quaternary
    • cenozoic
  108. period and era of origin of human ancestors
    • neogene
    • cenozoic
  109. period and era of radiation of mammals
    -take advantage of dead dinosaurs
    • paleogene
    • cenozoic
  110. period and era of first flowering plants and primates
    • cretaceous
    • mesozoic
  111. period and era of first mammals and birds
    • jurassic
    • mesozoic
  112. period and era of first dinosaurs
    • triassic
    • mesozoic
  113. Tendency for lineages to evolve toward larger body size
    -because of O2 increase
    Cope's Rule
  114. * large animals tend to become smaller
    * small animals tend to become larger
    * changes occur in relatively short evolutionary time following isolation
    Island Rule
  115. Large animals tend to become smaller
    insular dwarfism
  116. small animals tend to become larger
    insular gigantism
  117. Examples of island rule
    • dwarfism-pony sized elephants, dog sized deer
    • gigantism-komodo dragons, tortoises
  118. * global in extent
    * involves broad range of species
    * occurs relatively rapidly
    Mass Extinctions
  119. Period of 1st extinction
    * 85% marine invertebrate, 26% of families
    * severe and sudden global cooling
    End of Ordovician period
  120. Period of 2nd extinction
    * loss of 1st jawed fish
    Late Devonian Period
  121. Period of 3rd extinction
    * 96% marine, 80% land animals
    * trilobites
    * reduced diversity
    * Volcanic eruptions-CO2 increased global warmth
    * ocean acidification- O2 depletion
    End of Permian Period
  122. Period of 4th extinction
    * Volcanic activity during break up of pangaea
    * climate warming-methane released
    End of Triassic Period
  123. Period of 5th extinction
    * extinction of dinosaurs, pterosaurs, large
    * asteroid impact-debris blocked sunlight
    * global cooling
    End of cretaceous period
  124. allowing survivors of extinction to grow and diversify
    adaptive radiation
  125. complex traits can evolve as ________ _____________  of existing structures
    gradual modification
  126. Many complex traits evolved from earlier traits that had served different functions
  127. example of gradual modification
    mollusk eyes
  128. example of exaptation
    bird feathers and wings
  129. * studies the interface between evolution and development
    * investigates genes that control deveolpment
    * slight genetic changes can produce major morphological differences between species
    • Evo-Devo
    • 1. changes in rate and timing during development
    • 2. changes in spatial pattern during development
  130. investigates genes that control development-> _____, ______, and ______ _______ of change during development
    rate, timing and spatial pattern
  131. * changes in rate and timing during development
    * may produce major evolutionary transformations
  132. 2 examples of heterochrony
    • 1. Allometry
    • 2. Paedomorphosis
  133. study of change in proportion of various body parts as a consequence of growth
    • Allometry
    • ex. human and chimpanzee growth
  134. timing of reproductive development
    * adult retains ancestral juvenile body features
    • paedomorphosis
    • ex. salamanders that retain gills
  135. 2 genes that contribute to changes in spatial pattern during development
    • 1. homeotic genes
    • 2. hox genes
  136. * master regulatory genes that control placement and spatial organization of body parts
    * control developmental fate of group of cells
    Homeotic genes
  137. * class of homeotic genes in animals
    * directs where body parts go in embryo
    • Hox genes
    • ex. insect appendages
  138. 2 things systematics does
    • classification of organisms
    • determination of evolutionary relationships
  139. ordered division of organisms into categories
  140. * binomial system of nomenclature
    * nested system of hierarchical classification
  141. evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
  142. Taxonomic Hierarchy:
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  143. * branching diagram representing evolutionary history of group of organisms
    * represents hypothesis about evolutionary relationships
    Phylogenetic Tree
  144. * similarity due to shared ancestry
    * used to construct phylogeny
  145. * superficial similarity due to convergent evolution
    * similar adaptations in unrelated organisms due to similar mode of life
    * not for phylogeny
  146. The more detailed the resemblance (morphology, DNA) more likely it is due to _________
  147. Comparing DNA sequences,
    small differ, closely related
    big differ, distantly related
    molecular homologies
  148. * set of methods used to construct phylogenies
    * primary criterion in classification is common ancestry
  149. * group that includes ancestral species and all o its descendants
    * natural evolutionary group-monophyletic grouping
  150. group consists of ancestral species and all of its descendants (natural evolutionary group or clade)
  151. group consists of ancestor and some (not all) of ancestor's descendants
  152. Group consists of taxa without a common ancestor (not a natural evolutionary group)
  153. * originated in ancestor of taxon
    * predates branching of clade
    • shared ancestral character
    • *ex vertebral column in mammals
  154. * not found in ancestors of taxon
    * originated in taxon->only shared with other members of taxon
    * evolutionary novelty that is unique to particular clade
    • Shared derived character(synapomorphy)
    • ex hair in mammals
  155. shared derived character
  156. * indicates degree of genetic change
    * degree of evolutionary change
    * phylogenetic trees
  157. * width of lineage represents diversity of group in phylogenetic trees
    diversity within groups
  158. * branch lengths indicate evolutionary time
    * branch points indicate events in geologic time
    * Phylogenetic trees
  159. two principles on constructing the best tree
    • 1. maximum parsimony(simplest)
    • 2. Maximum LIkelihood (most likely)
  160. * comparing DNA, RNA, and other molecules to infer relatedness
    * determine relationships that are difficult using other methods
    Molecular systematics
  161. * method to measure the absolute time of evolutionary change
    * based on observation that some genes evolve at constant rates
    Molecular Clocks
  162. three Kingdom System
    • Kingdom protista
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Kingdom Animalia
  163. human's nature is fixed by our genes
    biological determinism
  164. type of competition that occurs when two organisms seek the same resource that has a limited supply
    Exploitive Competition
  165. A process in which plants release metabolites to hinder the growth of other plants
  166. An interaction between two organisms that reduces growth and/or reproduction in both organisms
    Intraference competition
  167. Competition that occurs between individuals of different species
    interspecific competition