Bio Exam II. 4

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  1. What is the name of the them?

    - classified as __, but they were originally classified as __.
    - some __, others __

    • protista
    • fungi

    • aquatic
    • terrestrial
  2. Why were they taken out the fungi kingdom?
    1) cell wall of fungi is chitin; cell wall of water molds is cellulose

    2) food storage of fungi is glycogen; water molds store starch

    3) all WM at some point produce motile cells (usually reproductive); with the exception of one group, fungi never do

    4) with the exception of one group, fungi have no centrioles; water molds do
  3. Water molds probably descended from __. A few are __, but most are __. 

    The term for filamentous is __; pl. is __. 

    Another term for a mass of hyphae is __.

    • unicellular
    • filamentous



  4. One of the characteristics of hyphae?
    - no __, except in one place, which is __.

    Why does it have to be there?

    base of the reproductive structure (has to be there)

    because the organism wll eventually open up and we want to prevent the cytoplasm from going all over the place
  5. Way Spores Form
    - similar to __.
    - spores usually form at __.

    What is the large structure that contains the spores?

    Spores are formed with __; and, the __ splits it up into spores.

    the tip of the hypha (has alot of nuclei= coenocytic)



  6. look up life cycle of saprolegnia
    p. 359
  7. Water molds can be __, which feed on dead organic material.

    Saprolegnia will grow on __. (It is an __). 
    - It is __ on fish with a __.

    • any dead organic material
    • aquatic mold


    compromised immune system
  8. Water molds form of reproduction is __.

    Zoosporangium: __

    Reproduces __ too.
    - strucures called __ (__ occurring within it)
    asex and sex

    spores that have flagella



  9. What is homothallic? 

    __ can be involved; attraction between the __ and the __ is not random.
    female and male reproductive structures produced on the same mycelium

    male: are fingerlike (antheridium is the male reproductive structure)

    spines that penetrate egg and allow one sperm to fertilize each egg

    • hormones
    • antheridia
    • oogonia
  10. Some Water molds are __, which means what?

    oogonia and antheridia made on different structures; male has to find the female which releases hormones
  11. Economical significance:
    Water molds cause what? 

    WM affects _. 

    Produces __ where, if you have __, it will do what?
    disease: phytophthora infestans

    late blight of potato

    all plant parts

    • zoospores
    • moisture
    • swim down to the developing root (tubers)
  12. Microorganisms are very good at __.

    Where do they originate from?
    getting around infection

    from stomates in the leaf/ all it takes is water--> zoospores swim
  13. 1840s:?
    • European outbreak preceded by outbreak in US (PA and NY and DE [1843])
    • 1844--> spread to the midwest and into Canada

    In europe, after 1845, the climate cooled and got wet--> ideal for WM

    • 1845: 40% of water crop lost
    • summer of 1846: 90%
    • 1847: not as bad
    • 1848: came back with a vengeance

    1-1.5 million died of starvation

    effect: death and widespread immigration
  14. True or False: 

    Potato blight is no longer a problem?
    • False; it is
    • - preventative care is too expensive
  15. Water molds can be __ or __. 

    Genus of grape is __. 

    Problem in teh mid 1800s
    - a water mold harmed __ by affecting the __.

    __ were affecting the __. 
    __ affets teh grapes
    ---> __ of grpaes

    What was the solution?
    aquatic or terrestrial


    the wine industry


    root aphids


    plasmopara viticola

    downey mildew

    • Bordeaux mixture= 1870
    • - copper sulfite and Ca(OH)2
    • - fungicide that saved the day
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Bio Exam II. 4
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