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Name the 3 major regions of the axial skeletal.
-How many bones
- 1-skull, Vertebral column, rib cage
- 2- 80 bones
What two SETS of bones are the skull made of?
2- name the facts about the cranium3-name facts about the facial bones
- 1- cranial bones and facial bones.
- 2-the cranium provides sites of attachments for the head and neck muscles. also the bones that enclose it
3-Its the framework for the face and it has openings for food and air passage. its also the site of attachment for teeth and muscles of facial expression.
Describe the location and landmarks on the frontal bone.
Anterior portion of cranium.
- -superior wall of the orbits. and contains an air filled frontal sinus.
Describe the parietal bones location
-label some landmarks on the bones
they are the superior and lateral aspects of the cranial vault.
-they have the coronal(parietal and frontal bone),saggital( r and L parietal bones), lamdoid(parietal and occipital), and squamous sutures. Parietal and temporal on the sides of the head.
Describe the location and landmarks of the occipital bone.
- most of the skulls posterior wall and posterior cranial fossa.
- -articulates with the first vertebra.
- - the ligament um nuchae and the back & neck muscles attach here.
Describe the location and landmarks of the temporal bone
Inferolateral aspects to the skull
- -they have a
describe the location and landmarks of the sphenoid bone.
its a bat shaped bone loacted at the base of the cranial floor. it also articulates with all of the other bones.
- -has the
- greater wings
- lesser wings
- pytergoid processes
Describe the location and landmarks of the ethmoid bone.
its the superior part of the nasal septum. also the deepest bone in the skull
- - has the crista gali for dural attachment.
- also contributes to medial walls of the orbits.
Describe the location and landmarks of the mandible.
Located at the lower part of the jaw.
- its the largest and strongest bone of the face.
- its tempromandibular joint is the only freely movable joint in the face.
Describe the location and landmarks of the mandible.
front of the jaw.
- used to form the upper jaw and used to form the central portion of the skeleton.
- it contains the maxillary sinus which is the largest of them all. and it articulates will all the other bones of the skull.
Describe the location and landmarks of the zygomatic bones.
inferolateral to the orbits
Describe the location of the nasal and lacrimal bones.
-describe any landmarks as well
- the nasal bone forms the bridge of the nose.
- the lacrimal bones are in the middle walls of the eyes.
the lacrimal fossa has the lacrimal sac.
describe the location and landmarks of the palatine and vomer bones.
- the palatine bone is the posterior 1/3 of the hard palate. and is the posterolateral wall of the nasal cavity.
- - the vomer is located at the inferior part of the septum.
the palatine has a small part of the orbits and the vomer is plow shaped.
describe the location and landmarks of the hyoid bone
Its not a part of the skull. and does not articulate with any other bone. and is the attachment for the muscles of speech.
Describe the location of the para nasal sinuses and its job???
located in the sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillary bones.
its a mucosa lined air filled space.its job is to lighten the skull and enhance the resonance of voice.
describe the makeup of the nasal cavity
made up of the ethmoid, palatine, inferior nasal conchae, and the maxilla.
the nasal septum is made up of cartilage and bone.
what are the orbits and what bones make them up?
the orbits are an area that houses the the eyeballs and provides an area for attachment for the muscles of the eyes.
- 7 bones make up the orbit. and they are..
- frontal,sphenoid,mandible, lacrimal,ethmoid, zygomatic,palatine.
how many facial bones are in the skull???
now name them
- inferior nasal conchae(2)
- nasal bones(2)
What is the vertebral colum's job?
it surrounds and protects the spinal cord.
-transmits the weight of trunk to the lower limbs.
***it is a fixed structure that contains 26 irregular bones.
what are the normal and abnormal curvatures of the spine.
the normal curves are the cervical and lumbar curvatures which concave posterior and then the thoracic and sacral curvatures convex posteriorly
the abnormal ones are. lourdosis(swayback, serious lumbar curve), kyphosis(hunchback and exaggerated thoracic curve) and scoliosis an abnormal curvature.
***the Normal curves increase resilience and flexibility.
Name the ligaments of the vertebral column, and name what they connect??
anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments connect from the neck going to the the sacrum.
-the ligamentum flavum connects the adjacent vertebrae
-short ligaments connect the vertebra to those above and below.
What is the cushion like substance in the inter-vertebral discs composed of?
- Nucleus pulposus
- -Inner gelatinous nucleus
- -It gives the dics elasticity and compressibility.
- then theres the anulus fibrosis
- -the outer collar composed of collagen and fibro-cartilage.
what are the general structures of the vertebrae and what is the natural function.
Body or centrum- the anterior-weight bearing region
vertebral arch- made of pedicles and lamina that with the body enclose the vertebral foreman
- intervertebral foramina-lateral openings between ajacent vertebrae for the spinal nerves.
- -there are seven processes per vertebra.
- the articular processes point to where they say they going.
what is the difference in c1 and c2 from the rest of the cervical vertebrae.
Atlas makes a yes and axis makes a no.
axis has dens and provides pivot for rotation of the atlas.
atlas has no body or spinous process. superior facets articulate with the occipital condyles
what are the important facts about the thoracic vertebrae?
-they all have circular vertebral foramen
-location of the articular facets that allows rotation of the spine.
what are some quick facts about the lumbar vertebre
they recive the most stress and have these short thick pedicles and laminae
-their vertebral foramen is triangular.
the way the articular facets are purposely prevents them from rotation.
name some facts about the sacrum and coccyx!!
sacrum forms the posterior wall of the pelvis and articulates with the surface of the hip bones, forming sacro iliac joints.
what is the functions of the thoracic cage
- -protect vital organs of thoracic cavity
- -supports shoulder girdles and upper limbs
- -provides attachment sites for muscles of neck and back and shoulders.
what are the three fused bones that make up the sternum??
- And what are each of their anatomical landmarks?
Manubrium- goes with clavicle and ribs 1&2 and has the jugular notch
body- and has the sternal angle.
xiphoid- site of muscle attachment. has the xiphisternal joint where the sternum and xiphoid goes together.
differentiate the true ribs from the false ribs.
true ribs 1-7(vertebrosternal) is directly attached to the sternum,
ribs 8-12(vertebrochondral) are false
11-12 are floating no attachment to sternum
what are the Jobs of the the two girdles?
pectoral girdle- attaches upper limbs to body trunk(clavicle and scapula)
pelvic girdle-attaches the lower limbs to the body trunk.
how many bones are in the upper limb
-what are they
the humerus, radius, ulna, 8 carpal bones, 5 metacarpals, and 14 phalanges.
what are the bones in the wrist.
- from thumb. scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pistiform,
- top from pinky to thumb- trapezium,trapezoid, capitate and hamate
remember some lovers try positions that they cant handle.
what are the facts about the metacarpals and phalanx
metacarpus- 1-5 from thumb to pinky
- phalanges are digit 1- with 2 bones
- 2-5 has proximal,medial, distal phalanges
whats the difference between a male and female pelvis.
women's are made for bearing children. males pelvis is tilted a lot less forward. and the attachments are for support of the males heavier and stronger muscles.
**the true pelvis is narrow and deep.