Biochemistry-Physiology 3 1987

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Biochemistry-Physiology 3 1987
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2014-03-07 09:18:36
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1987
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NBDE I
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Biochemistry - physiology 1987
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  1. The km value of an enzyme is numerically equal to
    1. Half the maximum velocity expressed in moles/liter
    2. Velocity of a reaction divided by substrate concentration
    3. Substrate concentration in moles/liter necessary to achieve half the maximum velocity of a reaction
    4. Maximum velocity divided by half the substrate concentration in moles necessary to achieve maximum velocity
    3. Substrate concentration in moles/liter necessary to achieve half the maximum velocity of a reaction
  2. The major driving force for formation of a lipid micelle is
    1. Protein-lipid interaction
    2. Hydrophobic interaction between hydrocarbon tails
    3. Hydrogen bonding between water molecules of the micellar core
    4. Electrostatic interaction between the micellar core and polar heads
    2. Hydrophobic interaction between hydrocarbon tails
  3. Excluding the effect of drugs, apnea occurring after hyperventilation of an anesthetized patient results from
    1. Decreased demand for oxygen 
    2. Increased cerebral blood flow
    3. Decreased carbon dioxide tension
    4. Increased hydrogen ion concentration
    5. Decreased oxygenation of carotid bodies
    3. Decreased carbon dioxide tension
  4. Within physiologic limits, activity of the respiratory center is decreased directly by
    1. Decreased pH
    2. Increased pH
    3. Increased hemoglobin concentration
    4. Increased plasma carbon dioxide partial pressure
    2. Increased pH
  5. Strong stimulation of spindles in the masseter muscle causes
    1. Relaxation of the masseter muscle
    2. Contraction of the masseter muscle
    3. Contraction if the digastric muscle
    4. No change in the mandibular position
    2. Contraction of the masseter muscle
  6. Chondroitin sulfate occurs primarily in
    1. Bile
    2. Blood
    3. Liver
    4. Urine
    5. Cartilage
    5. Cartilage
  7. Complete hydrolysis of one mole of lecithin yields
    1. L-amino acids
    2. D-monosaccharides
    3. ohosohatidylethanolamines
    4. 2 fatty acids, 1 glycerol, 1 phosphoric acid and 1 choline residue
    5. 2 fatty acids, 1 glycerol, 1 phosphoric acid and 1 cholesterol molecule
    4. 2 fatty acids, 1 glycerol, 1 phosphoric acid and 1 choline residue
  8. Which of the following amino acids lessens the need for phenylalanine?
    1. Lysine
    2. Leucine
    3. Glycine
    4. Tyrosine 
    5. Tryptophan
    4. Tyrosine
  9. What is the product P in the following reaction?
    a-ketoglutarate + alanine ⇌ pyruvate + P

    1. Glutamate
    2. Glutamine
    3. Aspartate
    4. Succinate
    5. Pyridoxine phosphate
    1. Glutamate
  10. An action potential in a nerve fiber is related to
    1. Entry of sodium ion followed by exit of potassium ion
    2. Flow of electrons across the membrane following a change in membrane permeability 
    3. Change orientation of molecules in the membrane giving rise to a static potential difference
    4. A breakdown of metabolic products resulting in different concentrations of potassium across the membrane
    1. Entry of sodium ion followed by exit of potassium ion
  11. Pantothenic acid is an integral part of
    1. NAD
    2. Cobalamin
    3. Folic acid
    4. Coenzyme A
    5. Pyridoxine phosphate
    4. Coenzyme A
  12. Spatial summation results from the 
    1. Convergence of several afferent impulses not heave post synaptic nerve soma
    2. Repetitive firing of discharges (from the same presynaptic terminal), eventually producing an action potential
    3. Exhaustion of the stores of transmitter substance at the synapse
    4. Elaboration of some inhibitory substance, such as y-aminobutyric acid, at the synapse
    1. Convergence of several afferent impulses not heave post synaptic nerve soma
  13. What type of bond link amino acid residues to form proteins?
    1. Amide
    2. Anomeric
    3. Epimeric
    4. Hydrogen
    5. Glycosidic
    1. Amide
  14. Of the following, the most immediate source of oxaloacetic acid during metabolism is
    1. Glycine
    2. Aspartic acid
    3. Glutamic acid
    4. Acetoacetic acid
    5. a-ketoglutaric acid
    2. Aspartic acid
  15. Proteins rich in basic amino acids, such as lysine and arginine, which bind strongly to DNA are
    1. Albumins
    2. Keratins
    3. Histones
    4. y-globulins
    5. Scleroproteins
    3. Histones
  16. ATP inhibits phosphofructokinase even though ATP is also a substrate for the enzyme. This phenomenon is an example of
    1. Genetic repression
    2. genetic suppression
    3. Allosteric inhibition
    4. Competitive inhibition
    5. Noncompetititive inhibition
    3. Allosteric inhibition
  17. When are nerve fibers hypoexcitable?
    1. During resting potential
    2. At the firing level
    3. During local depolarization
    4. During negative atpfter-potential
    5. During positive after potential
    5. During positive after potential
  18. The spinal cord is the only structure in the central nervous system necessary for which of the following body functions?
    1. Respiration 
    2. Simple reflex
    3. Temperature regulation
    4. Coordinated muscle movement
    2. Simple reflex
  19. Addition of synthetic polyuridylic acid to a cell-free system capable of protein synthesis results in greatly enhanced incorporation of phenylalanine into peptide linkages.  In this system, polyuridylic acid is performing a function normally performed by
    1. DNA
    2. transfer RNA
    3. Ribosomal RNA
    4. Messenger RNA
    5. Mitochondrial RNA
    4. Messenger RNA
  20. Neutral fats contain mixtures of one or more fatty acids esterified with
    1. Sterol
    2. Glycerol
    3. lecithin
    4. Sphingosine
    5. Alcohols of high molecular weight
    2. Glycerol
  21. Calcium ions trigger contraction of muscles by binding to
    1. Actin 
    2. Myosin
    3. Troponin
    4. Tropomyosin
    3. Troponin
  22. The degenerate nature of the genetic code implies 
    1. A common tRNA for at least two amino acids
    2. That a remarkable degree of inaccuracy occurs in transcription
    3. The existence of multiple codons for each amino acid
    4. The existence of multiple species of ribosomes for control of messenger translation
    3. The existence of multiple codons for each amino acid
  23. Vitamin A functions to
    1. Prevent pellagra
    2. Promote absorption of calcium
    3. Promote differentiation of epithelial cells
    4. Maintain the integrity of connective tissues
    3. Promote differentiation of epithelial cells
  24. In which of the following conditions is oxygen partial pressure in arterial blood low?
    1. Anemia
    2. Polycythemia
    3. Pulmonary AV shunt
    4. Hipovolemia due to hemorrhage
    3. Pulmonary AV shunt
  25. Which of the following characterize the links between monomeric units of Nucleic acids?
    1. Ionic bonds
    2. Glycosidic bonds
    3. Phosphidester bonds
    4. Phosphotriester bonds
    3. Phosphidester bonds
  26. Purine bases taken in the human diet in the form of DNA or RNA are mostly
    1. Excreted as urea
    2. Excreted in the form of Uric acid
    3. Reused and converted to ATP needed as a source of energy
    4. Broken down to give NH3 and either Masonic acid or methylmalonic acid
    2. Excreted in the form of Uric acid
  27. Ribose phosphate needed for Nucleic acid synthesis can be derived from
    1. Gluconeogenesis
    2. The pentose phosphate pathway
    3. The Kreb's tryicarboxylicic acid cycle
    4. Decarboxylation of aromatic amino acids
    5. One-carbon transfer from tetrahydrofolate derivatives
    2. The pentose phosphate pathway
  28. A submaximal direct stimulus to a skeletal muscle causes
    1. Contraction of no fibers
    2. Contraction of some fibers
    3. Partial contraction of all fibers in the muscle
    4. Less contraction than with a subminimal stimulus 
    5. More contraction than with a maximal stimulus
    2. Contraction of some fibers
  29. A deficiency in choline in the diet may cause abnormalities in metabolism of 
    1. Lipids
    2. Proteins
    3. Minerals 
    4. Carbohydrates
    5. Nucleoproteins
    1. Lipids
  30. Destruction of the cerebellum cause lost of 
    1. Memory
    2. Vision
    3. Hearing
    4. Muscular coordination
    5. Both (2) and (3) above
    4. Muscular coordination
  31. Which of the following lipids participates in mitochondrial electron transport
    1. Ubiquinone
    2. B-carotene
    3. a-tocopherol
    4. Sphingomyelin
    1. Ubiquinone
  32. Corti's organ is responsible for perception of
    1. Light
    2. Sound
    3. Taste
    4. Temperature
    5. Proprioception
    2. Sound
  33. The annulospiral (primary) ending of the skeletal muscle spindle is stimulated when the
    1. Muscle is relaxed
    2. Muscle is stretched
    3. Intramural fibers are relaxed
    4. Gamma efferent fibers are inhibited
    2. Muscle is stretched
  34. Functionally, visceral smooth muscle and cardiac pacemaker cells are similar in that
    1. Neither contracts without neural point
    2. Neither has a true "resting" membrane potential
    3. Both require a precontractile stretch to initiate contraction 
    4. The "resting" membrane potential of each is approximately 85 mV
    2. Neither has a true "resting" membrane potential
  35. Failure of the heart to show tetanus when stimulated is explained by
    1. Fatigue
    2. Automaticity
    3. A long chronaxie
    4. A long refractory period
    4. A long refractory period
  36. The usual plasma concentration of glucose is 80-100 mg/dl., yet, normally glucose does not appear in the urine.  The best explanation for the fact is 
    1. Glucose is freely filtered, but is removed by the collecting duct
    2. Glucose is freely filtered, but is removed by reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule
    3. Glucose is secreted by the proximal convoluted tubule and reabsorbed by the distal convoluted tubule
    4. The glomerulus prevents glucose from being filtered into the nephron
    2. Glucose is freely filtered, but is removed by reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule
  37. Avidin influences which of the following vitamins?
    1. Niacin
    2. Biotin
    3. Thiamine
    4. Tocopherol 
    5. Phylloquinone
    2. Biotin
  38. Mobilization of blood sugar from liver glycogen occurs by way of a series of enzymatic reactions.  The last step in this sequence is catalyzed by
    1. Glucokinase
    2. Adenylate cyclase
    3. Glucose-6- phosphatase
    4. Glycogen phosphorylase
    5. Phosphorylase phosphatase
    3. Glucose-6- phosphatase
  39. Acids found in the citric acid (krebs) cycle are
    1. Glutamic acid and succinct acid
    2. Glucoronic acid and aspartic acid
    3. Oxaloacetic acid and aspartic acid
    4. Oxaloacetic acid and pyruvic acid
    5. Oxaloacetic acid and a-ketoglutaric acid
    5. Oxaloacetic acid and a-ketoglutaric acid
  40. Albinism is a genetic disease that results in incomplete metabolism of 
    1. Alanine
    2. Tyrosine
    3. Cysteine
    4. Histidine
    5. Tryptophan
    2. Tyrosine
  41. Which of the following reactions is the immediate source of energy for muscle contraction?
    1. Creatinine ⇀ creatinine

    2. ATP ⇀ ADP + inorganic phosphate

    3. Creatinine phosphate + ADP ⇀ ATP + creatine

    4. Creatine phosphate ⇀ Creatine + inorganic phosphate
    2. ATP ⇀ ADP + inorganic phosphate
  42. Decreased blood colloidal osmotic pressure causes fluid to shift from
    1. Interstitial space to blood
    2. Blood to interstitial space
    3. Intracellular space to interstitial space
    4. Extracellular space to intracellular space
    5. None of the above
    2. Blood to interstitial space
  43. The most abundant form of iron in human blood plasma is found 
    1. As free Fe++
    2. As free Fe +++
    3. As ferritin
    4. Associated with transferrin
    5. Associated with ceruloplasmin
    4. Associated with transferrin
  44. Hydroxylation at the 1 position of 25 hydroxycholecalciferol occurs primarily in the
    1. Skin
    2. Liver
    3. Kidney
    4. Intestinal mucosa
    3. Kidney
  45. Carbonic anhydrase in erythrocytes increases
    1. Rate of dissociation of H2CO3
    2. Rate of formation of oxyhemoglobin
    3. Permeability of erythrocytes to HCO3
    4. Formation of carbamino compounds with hemoglobin
    1. Rate of dissociation of H2CO3
  46. Which of the following is present in plasma but absent in serum?
    1. Albumin
    2. Globulin
    3. Lecithin
    4. Fibrinogen
    5. Prothrombin
    4. Fibrinogen
  47. Which of the following hormones are produced by the neurohypophysis and affect contraction of smooth muscle?
    1. Vasopressin (ADH) and oxytocin
    2. Thyrotropin and intermedin
    3. Adenotropic and somatotropin
    4. Aldosterone and luteinizing hormone
    1. Vasopressin (ADH) and oxytocin
  48. During extended, strenuous exercise, the energy require for contracting skeletal muscle is supplied largely from
    1. Oxidation of fatty acids and acetoacetate
    2. Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetyl coenzyme A
    3.  Oxidation of acetyl coenzyme A in the tryicarboxylic acid cycle
    4. Anaerobic transformation of glucose from glycogen to lactic acid
    4. Anaerobic transformation of glucose from glycogen to lactic acid
  49. Dental plaque arises primarily as a result of enzymatic reactions using which of the following?
    1. Sucrose and lipid
    2. Sucrose and saliva
    3. Glucose and saliva
    4. Glucose and protein
    2. Sucrose and saliva
  50. Compared with systemic circulation under normal conditions, pulmonary circulation is characterized by low pressure and
    1. Low flow and low resistance
    2. Equal flow and low resistance
    3. Low flow and equal resistance 
    4. Equal flow and equal resistance
    5. High flow and equal resistance
    2. Equal flow and low resistance
  51. Sounds heard during systole in the antecubital space are produced by 
    1. Closure of AV valves
    2. Closure of the aortic valve
    3. Turbulent blood flow through the artery
    4. Laminar blood flow through the occluded artery
    3. Turbulent blood flow through the artery
  52. The PR interval in an electrocardiogram is an index of the 
    1. Length of auricular filling
    2. Period of isometric relaxation
    3. Length of auricular contraction
    4. Conduction time between atria and ventricles
    5. Period of maximal ejection of ventricular systole
    4. Conduction time between atria and ventricles
  53. The high ratio of postganglionic to preganglionic fibers in the sympathetic system has The physiologic result that
    1. Convergence of stimuli occurs
    2. Synaptic transmission is low, leading to a delay in response
    3. Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system leads to widespread effects
    4. Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous systems leads to very localized, discrete effects
    5. The presuynaptic stimulus must have a greater amplitude than when the number of preganglionic and postganglionic fibers is equal
    3. Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system leads to widespread effects
  54. Cell bodies of sympathetic preganglionic neurons are located in
    1. dorsal root ganglia
    2. Sympathetic chain ganglia
    3. The brain stem and the spinal cord
    4. Thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord 
    5. None of the above
    4. Thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord
  55. Which of the following causes some degree of temporary alkalosis?
    1. Hyperventilation 
    2. High fluid intake
    3. Excessive smoking
    4. Severe muscular effort
    5. Ingestion of ammonium chloride
    1. Hyperventilation
  56. The pathway of extramitochondrial synthesis of even-numbered fatty acids differs from that of the catabolism of fatty acids in that
    1. Malonyl CoA is an intermediate in synthesis
    2. Acyl carrier protein is needed in catabolism
    3. No flavoprotein enzymes are required for catabolism
    4. Propionyl CoA may serve as an intermediate in synthesis
    1. Malonyl CoA is an intermediate in synthesis
  57. Tropic hormone releasing factors produced in the hypothalamus are transported into the anterior pituitary through
    1. Nerve impulses
    2. The ultrashort feedback mechanism
    3. The peripheral circulatory system
    4. The microcirculatory portal system
    5. Long nerve fibers or ducts that also transport neurophysins
    4. The microcirculatory portal system
  58. Glomerular filtration rate may be determined by clearance of
    1. Urea
    2. Water
    3. Inulin
    4. Glucose
    5. Para-aminohippuric acid and (PHA)
    3. Inulin
  59. Secretin functions in digestion of proteins by increasing
    1. Flow of bile
    2. Secretion of pepsin
    3. Flow of pancreatic juice
    4. Secretion of carboxypeptidase
    3. Flow of pancreatic juice
  60. The air remaining in the alveoli at the end of a forced maximal expiration is the
    1. Tidal volume
    2. Vital capacity
    3. Residual volume
    4. Expiratory reserve volume
    5. Inspiratory reserve volume
    3. Residual volume
  61. Normal hemoglobin in concentration is about 15 gm/dl. blood and normal arterial oxygen content is about 20 ml. O2/dl. blood.  an anemic individual breathing room air with a hemoglobin concentration of 10 gm./dl. Blood is expected to have
    1. Normal arterial oxygen tension and normal arterial oxygen content
    2. Reduced arterial oxygen tension and normal arterial oxygen content
    3. Normal arterial oxygen tension and reduced arterial oxygen content
    4. Reduced  arterial oxygen tension and reduced arterial oxygen content
    3. Normal arterial oxygen tension and reduced arterial oxygen content
  62. The hemoglobin dissociation curve is shifted to the right by
    1. A decrease in temperature
    2. An increase in arterial PCO2
    3. An increase in arterial hydrogen ion concentration
    4. Both (1) and (3) above
    5. Both (2) and (3) above
    • 2. An increase in arterial PCO2
    • 3. An increase in arterial hydrogen ion concentration
  63. Prolonged medication with cortisol produces atrophy of the adrenal cortex through
    1. Inhibition of ACTH production 
    2. inhibition of aldosterone secretion
    3. direct action of the synthesis of C21
    4. None of the above
    1. Inhibition of ACTH production
  64. Countercurrent multiplier activity of the kidney is dependent upon the
    1. Presence of ADH
    2. Reabsorption of water from collecting ducts 
    3. Intensity of vasoconstriction of efferent arterioles
    4. Active reabsorption of water in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle 
    5. Active reabsorption of sodium ions in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
    5. Active reabsorption of sodium ions in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
  65. In the absence of compensatory changes, a drop in blood pressure results from
    1.Vasoconstriction
    2. Increased hematocrit
    3. Increased stroke volume 
    4. Increased cardiac output
    5. Decreased venous return
    5. Decreased venous return
  66. The chemical mediator at the neuroeffector junction in sweat glands is 
    1. Atropin
    2. Serotonine
    3. Epinephrine
    4. Acetylcholine
    5. Norepinephrine
    4. Acetylcholine
  67. Hypothyroidism in an adult results in
    1. Myxedema
    2. Thyrotoxicosis
    3. Osteitis fibrosa cystica
    4. Increased basal metabolic rate
    1. Myxedema
  68. Carbon dioxide or bicarbonate is required in the biosynthesis of fatty acids because
    1. The bicarbonate/carbonic acid buffer system is very efficient at the pH optimum of this sensitive enzyme system
    2. Bicarbonate is a positive effector for this system and favorably alters the conformation of it's enzyme 
    3. Carbon dioxide is incorporated into acetyl coenzyme A forming malonyl coenzyme A, an intermediate in the synthetic process
    4. Carbon dioxide is incorporated into carabamyl phosphate, a reactive intermediate in the synthetic process 
    5. Carbon dioxide provides an anaerobic environment that prevents oxidation of the sulfhydryl groups in the reactive sites of the enzyme system
    3. Carbon dioxide is incorporated into acetyl coenzyme A forming malonyl coenzyme A, an intermediate in the synthetic process
  69. Which of the following hormones facilitates reabsorption of sodium in renal tubules?
    1. Insulin
    2. Cortisone
    3. Vasopressin
    4. Aldosterone
    5. Parathyroid hormone
    4. Aldosterone
  70. Which of the following is a principal action of insulin?
    1. To mobilize lipid deposits
    2. To enhance cell permeability to glucose
    3. To decrease cell permeability to glucose
    4. To conserve glucose by breaking down amino acids
    2. To enhance cell permeability to glucose
  71. Which of the following occurs in a normal menstrual cycle?
    1. Ovulation generally occurs 10 days from the beginning of the cycle
    2. The ovum generally disintegrates or becomes nonviable if it is not fertilized within four days
    3. The blood concentration of estradiol increases as the corpus luteum develops
    4. The blood level of follicle stimulating hormone increases and the level of lute ionizing hormone decreases at the time of ovulation
    2. The ovum generally disintegrates or becomes nonviable if it is not fertilized within four days
  72. The nitrogenous product that is secreted in high amounts after prolonged acidosis is
    1. Urea
    2. Ammonia
    3. Glutamine
    4. Creatinine
    5. Aspartic acid
    2. Ammonia
  73. Epinephrine is most closely related in structure to
    1. Niacin
    2. Glucose
    3. Glycerol
    4. Tyrosine
    5. Methionine
    4. Tyrosine
  74. Development of ovarian follicles to the point of ovulation is stimulated primarily by
    1. Estrone 
    2. Progesterone
    3. Luteinizing hormone
    4. Follicle stimulating hormone
    5. Chronic gonadotropin hormone
    4. Follicle stimulating hormone
  75. Neutralization of acids by saliva results mainly from which of the following salivary contents?
    1. Mucin
    2. Ammonia
    3. Carbonate
    4. Bicarbonate
    5. Amino acids
    4. Bicarbonate
  76. The mechanism of systemic fluoride action in reducing dental decay is most likely the result of
    1. An increase in hardness of the tooth
    2. An inhibition of proteolytic enzymes
    3. Deposition of CaF2 in areas of enamel
    4. An increase in carbohydrate metabolism in the oral cavity as a result of enzyme inhibition
    5. A reduction in rate of solubilization of enamel as fluoride content of the tissue increases
    5. A reduction in rate of solubilization of enamel as fluoride content of the tissue increases
  77. The most abundant nonphospholipid component of the cell membrane is
    1. Cholesterol
    2. Deoxycholate
    3. Prostaglandin
    4. Macroglobulin
    5. Triacykglyceride
    1. Cholesterol
  78. After functioning in the small intestines, the largest portion of bile salts are
    1. Excreted in the feces
    2. Reabsorbed into the central lacteal
    3. Destroyed by bacteria in the large intestines
    4. Reabsorbed into the portal circulation and reused
    5. removed from the circulation by the kidneys and excreted in the urine
    5. removed from the circulation by the kidneys and excreted in the urine
  79. What thermodynamic parameter is a measure of randomness or disorder in a system?
    1. Entropy
    2. Enthalpy
    3. Free energy 
    4. Potential energy
    1. Entropy
  80. Which if the following solutions has an osmotic pressure different from all the others?
    1. 1 M glucose
    2. 1 M sodium chloride
    3. 1 M potassium nitrate
    4. 1 N lithium iodide
    5. 1 N hydrochloride acid
    1. 1 M glucose
  81. the function of rhythmic segmentation is chiefly that of
    1. Macerating food
    2. Mixing food with digestive secretions
    3. Increasing the surface available for absorption
    4. Transporting material down the gastrointestinal tract
    2. Mixing food with digestive secretions
  82. Which if the following describes the movement of glycine molecules in an electric field, at a pH of 6.06 (the isoelectric pH for glycine)?
    1. Glycine molecules will not move 
    2. All molecules will move to the anode
    3. All molecules will move to the cathode
    4. Half the molecules will move to the anode and half to the cathode
    5. None of the above
    1. Glycine molecules will not move
  83. The arrangement of sugars into D- and L- configurations is based upon their resemblance to D- and L-
    1. Glycine
    2. Glucose
    3. Fructose
    4. Glyceraldehyde
    5. None of the above
    4. Glyceraldehyde
  84. Which of the following proteins contain trace elements essential for their biologic action?
    a) Trypsin
    b) myoglobin
    c) thyroglobulin
    d) salivary amylase
    e) carbonic anhydrase
    • b) myoglobin
    • c) thyroglobulin
    • e) carbonic anhydrase
  85. Hydrolysis of sucrose by the enzyme Sucrase yields
    a) galactose
    b) glucose
    c) fructose
    d) maltose
    • b) glucose
    • c) fructose
  86. Normal production of sound enamel and dentin requires adequate amounts of which of the following vitamins?
    a) A
    b) B12
    c) C
    d) D
    e) E
    • a) A
    • c) C
    • d) D
  87. The amino acid composition of mammalian collagen type I is characterized by the presence of 
    a) cytsteine
    b) Hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine
    c) no sulfur containing amino acids
    d) glycine, as nearly one third the total number of amino acid residues
    e) a high content of aromatic amino acids
    • b) Hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine
    • c) no sulfur containing amino acids
    • d) glycine, as nearly one third the total number of amino acid residues
  88. In general, molecules that can penetrate a biological membrane with relative ease are
    a) highly charged
    b) non polar in nature
    c) small in size (below 7.5 A in diameter)
    • b) non polar in nature
    • c) small in size (below 7.5 A in diameter)
  89. in an experimental animal, the heart rate can ve accelerated by
    a) sectioning vagus nerve
    b) stimulating vagus nerves
    c) section ing sympathetic nerves
    d) stimulating sympathetic nerves
    • a) sectioning vagus nerve
    • d) stimulating sympathetic nerves
  90. Which of the following occur when active transport is involved in the movement of a solute across a biological membrane?
    a) expenditure of metabolic energy
    b) a gain in free energy by the system
    c) a unidirectional movement of the solute
    d) movement of the solute against a concentration gradient
    • a) expenditure of metabolic energy
    • b) a gain in free energy by the system
    • c) a unidirectional movement of the solute
    • d) movement of the solute against a concentration gradient
  91. Which of the following are examples of local (electronic or subtreshold) potentials?
    a) inhibitory post synaptic potentials
    b) excitatory post synaptic potentials
    c) generator potentials in pacinian corpuscles
    d) end plate potentials at the neuromuscular junction
    e) all for the above
    e) all for the above
  92. Hydrolysis of Nucleic acids is likely to yield all of the following EXCEPT
    1. Ribise
    2. Adenine
    3. Deoxyribose
    4. Acetic acid
    5. Bicarbonate
    4. Acetic acid
  93. Which of the following is NOT a primary (major) electrolyte of saliva?
    1. Sodium
    2. Calcium
    3. Fluoride
    4. Potassium
    5. Bicarbonate
    3. Fluoride
  94. Excessive use of fats by the body as a source of energy during starvation or disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism may lead to any of the following conditions EXCEPT
    1. ketosis
    2. Acidosis
    3. Ketonuira
    4. Alkalosis
    4. Alkalosis
  95. Which if the following enzymes does NOT function in association with a membrane?
    1. Permease
    2. Na+/K+ ATPase
    3. Adenylate cyclase
    4. Phosphofructokinase
    5. Coenzyme Q reductase
    4. Phosphofructokinase
  96. A substance that is actively secreted by the kidney is helpful in measurement of all of the following EXCEPT
    1. Renal blood flow
    2. Renal plasma flow
    3. Tubular maximum
    4. Filtration fraction
    5. glomerular filtration rate
    5. glomerular filtration rate
  97. Coupled respiration requires all of the following EXCEPT 
    1. ADP
    2. Oxygen
    3. Carbon dioxide
    4. An election donor
    5. Inorganic phosphate
    3. Carbon dioxide
  98. Each of the following is a function of the liver EXCEPT
    1. Bile formation
    2. Urea elimination
    3. Steroid conjugation
    4. Carbohydrate storage
    5. Prothrombin synthesis
    2. Urea elimination
  99. Gastrointestinal hormones act on each of the following organs EXCEPT the
    1. Stomach
    2. Pancreas
    3. Duodenum
    4. Gallbladder
    5. Urinary bladder
    5. Urinary bladder

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