syntax midterm 1

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Author:
crisandy
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265112
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syntax midterm 1
Updated:
2014-03-05 02:50:04
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syntax
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syntax
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syntax midterm 1
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  1. 4 core tasks of linguistics
    • understand and explain:
    • language
    • 1. structure
    • 2. acquisition
    • 3. use
    • 4. change over time
  2. performance data vs. native speaker competence
    • performance data = full of errors
    • native speaker competence is free of performance errors< study this
  3. native speakers can...
    • 1. tell possible/impossible sentences
    • 2. make statements/questions/commands
    • 3. understand and paraphrase
    • 4. recognize ambiguities
    • 5. create new sentences
    • 6. can use lang. appropriately
  4. native speaker limitations
    • 1. don't know "rules"/patterns
    • 2. don't know whole lang.
    • 3. don't always use it correctly
  5. essential design features of language
    • 1. complexity (ex. no nat. machine translation yet)
    • 2. productivity (ex. no limit to words/sentences)
    • 3. arbitrariness
  6. conventional nature of rules
    • 1. word order patterns
    • 2. gender assignment
    • 3. tense< time
  7. (un)Grammaticality
    • to express an idea:
    • 1. collect the right words
    • 2. put words in the right order
    • 3. put words in the right form
  8. co-occurrence requirements
    • 1. many words have co-occurence requirements: ("arguments" select their "complement")
    • they were at. they were at the park
    • 2. non-required elements ("adjuncts") can be freely added:
    • they were at the new skateboard park
  9. functions of word order
    • 1. who is doing what to whom
    • 2. emphasize one phrase or another
    • 3. words that describe one entity stay together as one phrase: the skilled hunter shot the large kangaroo
    • 4. provide ways to highlight one phrase or another: kyle baked the cookies last night vs last night, kyle baked the cookies
  10. phrase structure
    • 1. Instead of 1 word, many (phrase) ex. Dusty bit..... vs Our new puppy bit...
    • 2. find phrases by asking questions
    • who bit?
    • who(m) did Dusty bite?
    • Where did he bite him?
  11. syntax changes
    • 1. across time "say not"= "don't say"
    • 2. across dialects "didn't do anything" vs "didn't do nothing"
    • 3. across languages
  12. 2 major types of words
    • 1. content words
    • 2. function words
  13. Types of Nouns
    • 1. common noun: can have article ex. The girl
    • 2. Proper: no article ex. Nancy
  14. Noun (N)
    John, school, commerical
  15. Verb (V)
    go, hit, suffer

    actions and processes

    • types:
    • 1. Progressive: was eating
    • 2. Perfect: has eaten
  16. Adjective (A)
    big, blue, beautiful

    describe N
  17. Verb Subtypes
    Intransitive
    have only 1 argument (the subject)

    the baby cried
  18. Verb Subtypes
    Transitive
    have 2 arguments (subject and object)

    the baby bemoaned her broken toy
  19. Verb Subtypes
    Ditransitive
    have 3 arguments (subject, direct object, and indirect object)

    bob handed me the screwdriver
  20. Verb Subtypes
    Copular
    "equational structure" subset relationship

    anne was a doctor [anne=a doctor]
  21. Adverb (ADV)
    -ly, soon, there

    describe V
  22. Prepositon (P)
    • ~box~
    • also relationship between entities (connection)
    • in, of, for, since
  23. Pronoun
    take the place of a noun

    I, me, my, myself
  24. Interjections
    oh, ah, well, like, you know
  25. Intensifiers (INT)
    • Type of Determiner!
    • amount

    very, rather, quite
  26. Articles (ART)
    • Type of determiner!
    • the, a
  27. Auxiliaries (AUX)
    • before a V
    • can have up to 3 AUX before a V= must have been dreaming

    could, must, be, have, do
  28. differences between languages
    • 1. not all have the same classes (types of words, ex. Japanese> no articles)
    • 2. same words can be different classes of words in other languages ex. brother. eng= N, Yuma= verb
  29. Types of Determiners (D)
    • 1. Articles ex. A, the  dog
    • 2. Intensifier ex. one, some   dog
    • 3. Possessives  ex. my, her dog
    • 4. Demonstrative  ex. this, that dog
  30. Conjunctions (C)
    connects words, phrases, or sentences
  31. WH words (? words)
    who, what, where, when, why

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