Chapter 14 - East Asia

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Chapter 14 - East Asia
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2014-05-01 19:48:19
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Study Guide Flashcards for Mr. Tate's Geography class. Chapters 14, lessons 1-3.
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  1. LESSON 1
    Physical Geography of East Asia
  2. What is a de facto country and give an example of one.
    • A de facto country is a country not legally
    • recognized by other countries. An example of this would be the Republic of
    • China.
  3. What are the three main subdivisions of mainland East Asia and describe each.
    • East Asia consists of China and Mongolia. Because of
    • difference in elevation, the sub regions are like steps in a staircase. Highest
    • step is the Plateau of Tibet, a vast area of mountains and uplands in
    • southwestern China. Sometimes called “the roof of the world”. North and east of
    • Tibet, land elevation drops sharply to the second step in the staircase.
    • Mountains and plateaus dominate this sub region. There are generally much lower
    • than those of basins. Much of the land in the northern part of the sub region
    • is desert or near desert. Land along the southern part of the sub region is
    • forested. The third and lowest step covers most of the eastern third of China.
    • Most Chinese live on these plains.
  4. Where is Tibet and how would you describe the topography (landscape)?
    • See card #2.
    • East Asia consists of China and Mongolia. Because of
    • difference in elevation, the sub regions are like steps in a staircase. Highest
    • step is the Plateau of Tibet, a vast area of mountains and uplands in
    • southwestern China. Sometimes called “the roof of the world”. North and east of
    • Tibet, land elevation drops sharply to the second step in the staircase.
    • Mountains and plateaus dominate this sub region. There are generally much lower
    • than those of basins. Much of the land in the northern part of the sub region
    • is desert or near desert. Land along the southern part of the sub region is
    • forested. The third and lowest step covers most of the eastern third of China.
    • Most Chinese live on these plains.
  5. What is an archipelago and give three examples in Asia.
    • Archipelago-group or chain of islands. Along
    • the eastern edge of the Sea of Japan an arc of islands stretches for roughly
    • 1500 miles. The islands-four large ones and thousands of much smaller ones-form
    • the archipelago of Japan (3rd largest in the world and island
    • nation). The islands are part of the Ring of Fire. Malay Archipelago (world
    • largest). Philippine Islands (island nation).
  6. How do tsunamis occur?
    • When an earthquake occurs below or close to
    • the ocean it can trigger a tsunami. This is a huge wave that gets higher as it
    • approaches the coast.
  7. What is loess and how does its product contribute to some bodies of water names?
    • Rivers in china pick up a big amount of
    • yellow-brown silt called loess. This silt gives the river and the sea their
    • name and color.
  8. What are two of the biggest rivers in the world that run through China?
    • Huang He (Yellow River) and Chang Jiang
    • (Yangtze River)
  9. What is the Three Gorges Dam and how does has affected China both positive and negative?
    It is a hydroelectric power plant. It is good because it prevents floods and it is bad because the people of China make other people of China bring coal up to the plant.
  10. Of the four seas along the eastern edge of mainland East Asia, which is the largest and how is it distinctive?
    • South China Sea. Partly enclosed by Taiwan,
    • southeastern china, and islands of Southeast Asia. Because South China Sea lies
    • between important ports in the pacific and Indian oceans, it has some of the
    • busiest shipping lanes in the world.
  11. What is the Chang Jiang or Yangtze and why is it important?
    • One of the most important rivers of East Asia.
    • Begins high on Tibet and flows down the eastern slope of Tibet. China’s
    • principal waterway. Provides water for fertile farming region where more than
    • 2/3 of the country’s rice is grown. Nearly 1/3 of China’s people live in the
    • river’s basin.
  12. Describe the differences in climates amongst this region and what are three main factors that shape these climates?
    • Latitude differences, land elevation, air
    • masses. Southeastern china stays hot and rainy through much of the year. Across
    • north-central and northwestern China and neighboring Mongolia the climate
    • ranges from semiarid (somewhat dry) to arid (very dry). Winters are bitterly
    • cold.
  13. What are the natural resources of this region?
    • China (world leader) tin, lead, zinc, iron
    • ore, tungsten. Tungsten used to make steel (high quality), light bulbs,
    • rockets, and electrical equipment. Japan world leader of industrial countries.
    • (Few mineral resources) coal, copper, some iron ore. Pearls (white, silver,
    • pink) in seas around Japanese islands. East Asia (coal, oil, natural gas).
    • China-largest deposit of these fossil fuels. China-world’s largest producer of
    • coal. China has substantial oil and natural gas reserves under the South China
    • Sea and in the Taklimakan Desert in the far west. Forested areas cover less
    • than 1/6 of the country.
  14. LESSON 2
    History of East Asia
  15. What is a dynasty?
    • A line of rulers from a single family that
    • holds power for a long time.
  16. Why was the Great Wall of China built? When was it built? How long is it?
    The Han dynasty rose up in the 200s BC. It united all of China and started building the Great Wall of China. It's approximately 5500 miles long.
  17. Give an important fact about each dynasty; Shang, Zhou, Han, Tang, Ming, Quing.
    • The first dynasty of China was the Shang and it was the first to leave records of it. The Shang was in power about 1600 BC. This was in the North China Plain. The Shang had many problems to deal with rebellion by local lords, attacks by Central Asian nomads, and floods. Their government would defend their people against these things. The Shang weakened and fell. The next dynasty was the
    • Zhou. This dynasty ruled for 800 years. It started about 1045 BC. When this dynasty was in power the culture of China spread, the trade grew, and they started making iron tools. The Han rose up in the 200s BC. It united all of China and started building the Great Wall of China. Under the supervision of
    • the Han and Tang dynasties, traders and missionaries spread the Chinese’s culture all over East Asia. Under the Ming dynasty in the early 1400s Zheng He (naval explorer) made it as far as the coast of East Africa. The Qing was the last dynasty. It ruled from the mid-1600s to the early 1900s.
  18. What are Confucius and Daoism and describe each.
    • Confucius - The Zhou dynasty was an age of great thinkers. One them was Confucius. He thought that people should be morally good and loyal to their families. He also thought that a ruler should lead his people like he were the head of a family.
    • Daoism - Another thinker was Laozi. He founded the belief system Daoism. He thought that people should live in harmony and nature. 
  19. What are four major early Chinese inventions?
    During the Han dynasty papermaking was invented. During the Tang dynasty woodblock printing was invented. Another invention was gunpowder which was used in explosives and fireworks. They also invented the magnetic compass.
  20. What was the Silk Road and what cities did it connect?
    This was a caravan route that was 4000 miles long. It went from China to Southwest Asia. It extended into Europe and South Asia. They sent silk, tea, spices, paper, and fine porcelain in exchange for wool, gold, and silver.
  21. Who were the Mongols?
    In the 1200s, the Mongols, a people from the steppes of Central Asia, had conquered North China, parts of Asia, and the northern half of the Korean peninsula. This became part of the Mongol's Yuan dynasty. At the end of the 1300s, the Mongols were driven out of Korea and a new Korean dynasty called the Choson came to power.
  22. How did China influence Korea?
    Chinese characters came to be used for Korean writing. Korean artists and writers were inspired by the art and literature of china. Korean rulers also adopted Confucianism as a basis for government. In some periods, China provided Korea with military protection. In other periods, Koreans lived in fear of Chinese invasion.
  23. What religion spread from Korea to Japan?
    Buddhism. It was then mixed with Shinto.
  24. Define the following words Shinto, shogun & samurai.
    • Shinto: or "Sacred Way" stressed that all parts of nature-humans, animals, plants, and rivers-have spirits.
    • shogun: a military leader who ruled Japan in early times
    • samurai: a powerful, land-owning warrior in Japan
  25. Why was Japan isolated for 200 years and how did that change?
    By the early 17th century, however, Japan had forced all foreigners to leave and barred almost all relations with the outside world. Japan's policy of sakoku (isolation) lasted for 200 years, until an American, Commodore Matthew Perry, sailed to Japan and reopened diplomatic relations in 1854.
  26. How has China and Taiwan changed since 1949?
    Before 1949 the Chinese economy was characterized by widespread poverty, extreme income inequalities, and endemic insecurity of livelihood. The most concrete evidence of improvement is the living standards that averaged to the national life expectancy doubled, rising from around thirty-two years in 1949 to sixty-nine years in 1985. 
  27. What happened during the Korean War?
    In 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea. United Nations forces and the United States rushed to supports South Korea, and China helped North Korea. he Korean War ended in 1953 without a peace treaty or a victory for either side.
  28. What happened to Japan after defeat in WW2 and how is Japan's population and economy today?
    Japan was stripped of its oversea territories and military might. The country adopted a democratic constitution, and women and workers gained more rights. During the Korean War, the United States needed Japanese factories to provide supplies for its war effort. Japanese shipbuilders, manufactures, and electronics industries benefited from giving this assistance. The government worked closely with businesses to plan the country's economic growth.
  29. Who is Hirohito and Akihito?
    Hirohito was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death in 1989.Akihito was the 125th emperor of his line according to Japan's traditional order of succession. He acceded to the throne in 1989.
  30. LESSON 3
    Life in East Asia
  31. What was China's population 2000 years ago and how many countries today have that many people?
    59 million. Two dozen.
  32. What events have temporarily slowed China's population growth over the years?
    Epidemics, famines, warfare, and other factors.
  33. What is the "one-child" policy?
    Families can have no more than one child.
  34. What type of area do most people in Japan live?
    2/3 of the people live inc cities. The cities Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, and Yokohama form a megalopolis, or supersized urban area, along the coast.
  35. How does Mongolia's population density compare to China and Japan?
    Less than 4 people per square mile.
  36. What are the official languages of China and Hong Kong?
    • China - Mandarin Chinese
    • Hong Kong - Cantonese and English
  37. How has China's government influenced its citizens religious choices and what are the most common religions there?
    Many Chinese practice a mix of Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism. The Communist government that took over in 1949 believed that religion had no place in a communist country, so it began limiting religious practice. In recent decades anti-religious policies have been relaxed somewhat.
  38. What are some traditional forms of art in Korea and Japan?
    • Korea - Artists paint rugged landscapes of their countries and their work reflects a reverence for nature that is part of Daosim and Shinto. Ceramics, pottery, weaving, carving, and lacquer work
    • Japan - calligraphy
  39. What is a major sport played in Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea, and what is the major youth event they attend in the US?
    Baseball. Little League World Series.
  40. How does pollution affect China and Japan?
    Acid Rain.
  41. What is the US Trade Deficit with China?
    When the US imports more goods from China than we sell to China.
  42. How did the Tsunami of 2004 and 2011 affect the areas they hit?
    They killed thousands of people and damaged several nuclear power plants and it disrupted trade and manufacturing around the world.

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