Bio 330 Lecture 16

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sinopa
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265125
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Bio 330 Lecture 16
Updated:
2014-03-10 21:40:33
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marine biology cpp cal poly pomona valdez
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Bio 330 Lecture 16 - threats to marine envrionment Winter 2014
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  1. Threats to marine envrionment
    • pollution
    • invasive species
    • habitat destruction
    • overfishing and species extinctions
    • global warming
    • ocean acidification
  2. Global warming
    • during the last century and coinciding with the beginning of the industrial revolutoin, the avg temp. on earth have been increasing
    • process is speeding up
    • no historical records show such a dramatic increase
  3. The greenhouse effect
    water vapor and other gases such as CO2, ozone, and methane absorb reflected solar energy and contribute to warmer surface temperatures (60F)
  4. The carbon cycle
    • industrial activities and transportation utilize carbon molecules and release CO2 into the atmosphere
    • Levels of atmospheric CO2 are increasing to historical levels
  5. Critics of global warming
    • some scientists have argued that solar cycles are responsible for much of the warming during the 20th century
    • some argued that galactic cosmic rays may have contributed to recent warming of the stratosphere
    • the observed effect since at least 1060 has been cooling of the stratosphere which one of the predicted of greenhouse gas
  6. ENSO
    El Nino-Southern Oscillation
  7. PDO
    Pacific Decadal Oscillation
  8. Implications of global warming
    • sea level rises
    • potential change in oceanic currents
    • albedo reduction
    • changes in the chemistry of the ocean and the atmosphere
    • changes in the distribution of species
  9. Sea level rise
    • the sea level has been rising for the last 20k years
    • however, the rise has accelerated dramatically during the last century and keeps speeding up
  10. Causes for recent sea level rise
    • most of recent sea level rise is due to increase in water temperature and subsequent increase in water volume
    • although there has been substantial melting of ice reported, most of the melting affected floating ice, which does not contribute to increase sea levels
    • new data from NASA indicates that recent melting of glacier systems is already contributing to sea level rise
  11. Causes for recent sea level rise
    • most of recent sea level rise is due to increase in water temperature and subsequent increase in water volume
    • although there has been substantial melting of ice reported, most of the melting affected floating ice, which does not contribute to increased sea levels
    • new data from NASA indicates that recent melting of glacier systems is already contributing sea level rise
  12. Future of sea level rise
    • if land ice sheet covering greenland and antartica melts the sea level can rise up to 200 feet
    • entire cities such as new york or miami would be covered with water
  13. Can warming cause cooling?
    • rapid melting of the ice sheet of greenland could potential distrupt or stop the gulf stream
    • the timescale is unclear--estimates range from a few decades to a few hundred years
  14. Albedo
    • the extent to which an object reflects light
    • the reflectivity of liquid water is very low at high and medium angles
    • however, that reflectivity of ice is very high
  15. changes in chemistry
    • increases in global temperatures have the potential to melt the permafrost releasing as much as 70 billion tons of methane into the atmosphere
    • huge amounts of methane are accumulated in the deep sea in form of methane-hydrate ice, rise in water temperature may eventually melt it
    • we may reach a "tipping" point
  16. Species distribution
    • the geographic ranges of most species are limited by climatic factors, including temperature
    • any shift in the magnitude or variability of these factors in a given location will impact the organisms living there
    • many species are already moving to cooler areas others are changing their life cycle and others will go extinct
  17. Global dimming
    • the release of particles to the atmosphere from the use of fossil fuels has created a layer of pollution that reflects sun energy creating a global dimming phenomenom that opposes warming
    • the reduction in particle pollution levels and the increase of carbon emissions is increasing global warming

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