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There are four 'continuous' levels of measurement, what are they?
- commences with the specific and goes to the
commence with the general and moves to
- a statement of the relationship among variables
- e.g. tension is aroused when here is a mismatch between a person’s beliefs and
Research Questions and Hypothesis
- attempt to identify specific relationships
- between variables in a theory
- addresses theory using a general question e.g.
- does cognitive dissonance result in increased arousal?
- a tentative statement derived from theory that
- specifies a relationship between concepts; generally, in the form of a
- prediction e.g. cognitive dissonance will result in increased arousal.
explicitly defining a way to measure something.
answers fundamental questions about the nature of behaviour. E.g. how does memory work?
- conducted to address issues in which there are
- practical problems and takes place 'in the real world’, e.g. why are people always late to work.
Cross sectional research
- descriptive studies where data is collected from
- one population at only one point in time
- the same group of people observed at different
- points in time. E.g. the seven up study
observing behaviour in the real word.
- Case studies – detailed observation of a single
- case e.g. person, family.