Ch 19

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Ch 19
2010-07-12 23:14:31
anatomy physiology

blood vessels and circulation
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  1. artery
    vessel that carries blood away from heart
  2. vein
    vessel that carries blood to heart
  3. arteriole
    small artery; its diameter greatly influences blood flow and pressure
  4. venule
    small vein
  5. capillary
    • smallest of blood vessels; connects arteriole to venule.
    • its very thin wall consists only of tunica interna and allows the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products btwn blood and tissues
  6. tunica interna
    • aka tunica intima
    • innermost layer of blood vessel wall
  7. tunica media
    • middle layer of blood vessel wall
    • consists mostly of circularly arranged smooth muscle and sheets of elastic tissue
  8. tunica externa
    • aka tunica adventitia
    • outermost layer of blood vessel wall
  9. endothelium
    simple squamous epithelium of tunica interna
  10. vasa vasorum
    small blood vessels in tunica externa of lrg blood vessels
  11. aorta
    largest artery of body and main artery of systemic cicuit
  12. vena cava
    largest vein of body and main vein of systemic circuit
  13. systemic circuit
    blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the tissues and removes oxygen-poor blood to heart
  14. pulmonary circuit
    blood vessels that take oxygen-poor blood to the lungs and deliver oxygen-rich blood to the heart
  15. elastic artery
    • aka conducting artery
    • a lrg, thick-walled vessel near heart
    • having a relatively lrg amount of elastic tissue in its wall, and elastic artery can stretch during ventricular systole and rebound during ventricular diastole
    • the aorta is a good ex.
  16. muscular artery
    • aka distributing artery
    • medium-sized artery that delivers blood from and elastic artery to a specific organ
    • relatively has lrg amount of smooth muscle in its wall
  17. precapillary sphincter
    a cuff of smooth muscle that acts as a valve to regulate blood flow into a capillary
  18. venous valve
    • valve in a vein of extremities
    • prevents backflow of blood
    • the cusps of the valve are folds of the tunica interna and resembles those of the semilunar valves of the heart
  19. muscular pump
    the prolusion of venous blood by the action of skeletal muscles
  20. respiratory pump
    the drawing of venous blood into the thorax during inspiration
  21. venous sinus
    • a specialized, thin-walled vein
    • ex dural sinuses of the brain
    • coronary sinus of the heart
  22. anastamosis
    • a lateral connection btwn parallel vessels
    • anastomoses can be artery-to-artery, vein-to-vein, and artery-to-veing (anteriovenous)
  23. collaterals
    parallel vessels that are connected by anastamosis
  24. continuous capillary
    • capillary whose endothelium has numerous tight junctions and allows only minimal passage of plasma and all solutes
    • most common type of capillary in body
  25. fenestrated capillary
    • capillary whose enothelial cells have pores that allow passage of plasma and small solutes
    • fenestrated capillaries are found in enndocrine glands, the small intestine, and kidneys