Pathology.txt

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Pathology.txt
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2010-07-12 20:09:10
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Pathology
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  1. Which of the following is the leading cause of death in the United States of America?
    Myocardial Infarction
  2. Which of the following is characterized by incomplete expansion of the lungs or collapse of previously inflated lungs?
    Atelectasis
  3. Which of the following involves separation of the diaphragmatic crura & widening of the space between the muscular crura & the esophageal wall?
    Hiatal Hernia
  4. Which of the following is an autosomal recessive disorder marked by accumulation of toxic levels of copper in many tissue & organs, mostly in the liver, brain, & the eye?
    Wilson’s Disease
  5. Which of the following is a cancer of the connective tissue that usually spreads via the blood stream?
    Sarcoma
  6. Which of the following is a cancer of the epithelial tissue that usually spreads via the lymphatic system?
    Carcinoma
  7. Which of the following cells is produced predominately by an inflammatory response to Salmonella?
    Neutrophil
  8. What organism is the most common opportunist to infect AIDS patients?
    Pneumocystis carni
  9. Which of the following presents with a positive HLA-B-27 & increased risk of deformity?
    Ankylosing Spondylitis
  10. Toxic Megacolon is a complication of which of the following?
    Ulcerative Colitis
  11. Skip lesions are a characteristic of which of the following?
    Krohn’s Disease
  12. Aschoff bodies are characteristic of which of the following?
    Rheumatic Fever
  13. Pseudohypertrophy is most common in which of the following muscle disorders?
    Duchanne’s Dystrophy
  14. The most threatening effect of Guillian Barre is on which of the following muscles?
    Respiratory
  15. Dry eyes & mouth are symptoms of which of the following autoimmune diseases?
    Sjogen’s Syndrome
  16. Vascular tumors originate in which cell type?
    Endothelial
  17. Sequestra frequently accompany which of the following?
    Pyogenic Osteomyelitis
  18. What is the primary mechanism of inflammatory edema?
    Increased Permeability of the Capillary Wall
  19. The most common sites for cardiac valvular vegetations are which of the following valves?
    Aortic & Mitral Valves
  20. Coccidiomycosis most commonly affects which organ?
    Lung
  21. Who is considered the father of pathology?
    Pasteur
  22. What characteristic is least suggestive of malignancy in a growing tumor?
    Fibrous Capsule (usually benign)
  23. Which of the following secrete both heparin & histamine?
    Mast Cells
  24. Carcinoma is least likely to metastasize where?
    Skeletal Muscle
  25. Which of the following affects both salivary & lacrimal ducts?
    Sjogen’s
  26. Which of the following is a common site for cardiac valvular vegetations?
    Aortic Valve
  27. Which leukemia has the Philadelphia Chromosome?
    Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
  28. Which of the following leads to decreased bone density?
    Osteoporosis
  29. A female with gonorrhea may pass it via delivery by which of the following?
    Opthalmia Neonatorum
  30. Which of the following has the best prognosis?
    Astrocytoma
  31. Which of the following is the most common malignant tumor of the intestines?
    Adenosarcoma
  32. Which of the following is a common site for cardiac valvular vegetations?
    Mitral Valve
  33. Which of the following is characteristic of a neoplasm?
    It Cannot Return To Normal
  34. Where are neoplasms most commonly formed?
    Epithelium
  35. Multiple myofibromas & café au-lait spots are associated with which of the following?
    Von Recklinghausen’s
  36. Which part of the spinal cord is most affected by myotrophic lateral sclerosis?
    Anterior Horn
  37. Which of the following are findings in a patient with tetralogy of fallot?
    Pulmonary Stenosis & Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
  38. What describes thrombophlebitis?
    Venous Inflammation & Thrombus
  39. What describes right side heart failure?
    Distention of Neck Veins, Dependant Edema, Liver Enlargement
  40. Systemic fibrosis is seen in which of the following?
    Scleroderma
  41. What organism is most responsible for pneumonia in AIDS patients?
    Pneumocystic Carni
  42. Which of the following immunoglobulins are associated with a Type II response?
    IgG & IgM
  43. Which of the following is a common cause of right side heart failure?
    Left Side Heart Failure
  44. Pernicious anemia is due to a lack of which of the following?
    Intrinsic Factor
  45. Which of the following disorders affects myoneural junction?
    Myasthenia Gravis
  46. Which arteries are involved in giant cell arteritis?
    Temporal
  47. T-helper cells are seen in which types of immunity?
    Type IV
  48. Presenile dementia is seen in which of the following?
    Alzheimer’s Disease
  49. A female with gonorrhea may pass it to the child when?
    During Delivery
  50. Which Leukemia is involved with the Philadelphia Chromosome?
    CML
  51. A person with Galactosemia should avoid which of the following?
    Lactose (milk)
  52. Pernicious anemia & lack of Vitamin B12 results in ______________.
    Spinal Cord Degeneration
  53. Which of the following causes pitting edema?
    Congestive Heart Failure
  54. What causes edema of flanks & fatty changes in the liver?
    Alcoholism
  55. Which of the following cause a cyanotic condition?
    Dextroposition of the Aorta
  56. The Philadelphia Chromosome is a risk factor for which Leukemia?
    Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia
  57. Which of the following is a periosteal encasement of necrotic tissue?
    Sequestrium
  58. What are patients with asbestosis predisposed to?
    Mesothelioma
  59. A periosteal reaction described radiologically as a sunburst reaction is most common in which of the following?
    Osteosarcoma
  60. Which of the following is a degenerative disease that affects the cranial nerve nuclei?
    Progressive Bulbar Palsy
  61. Circulatory levels of which of the following increase during an acute inflammatory response?
    Neutrophil
  62. Which disease presents with chronic rheumatoid arthritis & splenomegally?
    Felty’s Syndrome
  63. What is an a.k.a. for Marie Strumpell’s Disease?
    Ankylosing Spondylitis
  64. Which of the following affects the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia & results in resting tremors?
    Parkinson’s Disease
  65. Megaloblastic anemia is caused by which vitamin deficiency?
    Vitamin B12
  66. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis for an infant who develops projectile vomiting in the 1st 3 weeks of life?
    Pyloric Stenosis
  67. What is the most common benign tumor of the spine?
    Hemangioma
  68. What causes hoarseness associated with a carcinoma in the apex of the lung?
    Laryngeal Nerve Damage
  69. Which of the following substances is produced in the cells & increases inflammation due to tissue injury?
    Histamine
  70. What happens to a cell as a result of thyroid goiter?
    Hyperplasia
  71. Which of the following types of thyrotoxicosis is the most common in patients under 40?
    Graves Disease
  72. What are the 4 steps associated with thrombus?
    • 1. Dissolving
    • 2. Recanalization
    • 3. Obstruction
    • 4. Embolism
  73. Which of the following does a lesion that has casious necrosis in the center surrounded by endothelial macrophages characterize?
    TB
  74. The release of histamine into the skin following cutaneous trauma causes which of the following?
    Vasodialation of Arterioles (redness)
  75. Which of the following occurs in a Keloid?
    Hypertrophic Enlargement of Scar Tissue
  76. Which of the following is classified as a benign neoplasm?
    Lipoma
  77. Which of the following is a systemic immune complex reaction?
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
  78. What would a deficiency of Vitamin C most often affect?
    Connective Tissue
  79. Chronic alcoholism, which leads to Wernecke-Korsakoff Syndrome, causes what type of vitamin deficiency?
    B1
  80. Which of the following is a characteristic of Lyme’s Disease?
    Bulls Eye Rash
  81. Which of the following is associated with Kleinfelter’s Syndrome?
    XXY Chromosome Abnormality
  82. Which of the following is the most common degenerative disease of the joints?
    Osteoarthritis (a.k.a. DJD)
  83. Which of the following is associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis?
    Pannus Formation
  84. Which of the following is responsible for post-infectious glomulonephritis?
    Beta-Hemolytic Strep
  85. Who is most likely to have entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve?
    Pregnant Females
  86. What is the definition of cardiac temponade?
    Fluid in the Pericardial Space
  87. Which of the following is a primary immunodeficiency disease?
    Bruton’s
  88. Which of the following results from hyperparthyroidism?
    Osteopenia
  89. What type of collagen can be found @ the end of wound healing?
    Type I
  90. What type of collagen is found 1st (earliest) in a wound?
    Type III
  91. What type of collagen is located in the basement membrane?
    Type IV
  92. A deficiency, in which of the following trace elements results in tetani similar to that, which accompanies hypocalcemia?
    Magnesium
  93. A patient with a yolk cell tumor of the testes likely has an elevation in which of the following blood serum levels?
    Alpha-fetoprotein
  94. Tensile strength is the proteinaceous deposition of __________ in a healing wound.
    Collagen
  95. A cancer that has not invaded the basement membrane or the tissue of origin is called _________________.
    Carcinoma In Situ
  96. Thrombosis & embolism of which of the following vessels can cause a transmural infarction of the small intestine?
    Superior Mesenteric Artery
  97. Which of the following diseases produces symptoms due primarily to demyelinization of peripheral motor nerve axons?
    Post-Infectious Polyradiculitis
  98. Generalized muscle weakness, poor intestinal tone & resultant bloating, heart abnormalities, weakening of respiratory muscles are characteristic of which of the following deficiencies?
    Calcium
  99. Coccidiomycosis most commonly affects which of the following organs?
    Lung
  100. Epidural hemorrhage most likely results from laceration to which of the following arteries?
    Middle Meningeal
  101. Synovial thickening & secondary inflammation with edema but no pannus formation is seen in which of the following conditions?
    Gouty Arthritis
  102. Ischemic necrosis as a consequence of cardiac muscle damage is which type of necrosis?
    Coagulative
  103. Which of the following causes localized edema, which accompanies filariasis?
    Lymphatic Obstruction
  104. Which joints do Heberden’s Nodes affect?
    Distal Interphalangeal
  105. What is the most common cause of Cirrhosis of the Liver?
    Chronic Alcoholism
  106. What is the most common cause of abdominal aortic aneurisms in the elderly?
    Atherosclerosis
  107. What is the 1st sign of artherosclerosis?
    Fatty Streaks
  108. Which of the following causes lobar pneumonia?
    Streptococcus
  109. What is the mechanism that allows the Herpes Virus to stay in the body after the original infection?
    Sequestering of the Virus Genome in the Sensory Neuron
  110. Where does a pulmonary embolus most commonly originate?
    The Lower Extremities
  111. Where can the initial symptoms of Myasthenia Gravis be observed?
    Ocular Muscles
  112. Pitting edema is typically cause by what?
    Congestive Heart Failure
  113. What condition is probably present when the median groove of the prostate cannot be palpated?
    Prostatic Carcinoma
  114. Which of the following would cause the prostate to feel boggy upon palpation?
    Prostatitis
  115. What exudative lesion is caused by mycobacterial tuberculosis & contains casious necrosis?
    Ghon Lesions
  116. Which disease is Brodie’s Abscess associated with?
    Osteomyelitis
  117. Which disease is associated with TB of the spine?
    Pott’s Disease
  118. What is another name for Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis?
    Still’s Disease
  119. Pyknosis is characterized by nuclear _________.
    Condensation
  120. Which of the following is a vasospastic disorder, which affects small arteries & arterioles of the extremities?
    Raynaud’s Disease
  121. Which of the following is not a characteristic of Horner’s Syndrome?
    Dyspnea
  122. What would a hemorrhage in the reticular formation of the brain likely result in?
    Coma
  123. What is a localized area of tissue necrosis resulting from immunologically induced necrotizing vasculitus?
    Arthus Phenomenon
  124. Which of the following is associated with subluxation of the lens, laxity of ligaments & cystic medial necrosis of the aorta?
    Marfan’s Syndrome
  125. In most types of allergic reactions which of the following mediates the immediate transient phase of vascular permeability?
    Histamine
  126. Ischemic necrosis as a consequence of cardiac muscle damage is which type of necrosis?
    Coagulative
  127. What causes localized edema, which accompanies filariasis?
    Lymphatic Obstruction
  128. Which joints do Heberden’s Nodes affect?
    Interphalangeal Joints
  129. Which of the following may lead to Megaloblastic Anemia?
    Atrophic Gastric Mucosa
  130. Antibodies against double stranded DNA are most characteristic of which of the following?
    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
  131. Which of the following classes of immunoglobulins most commonly cause autoimmune disease?
    IgG & IgM
  132. What will a protein deficient diet produce?
    Kwashiorkor
  133. Dermatitis, dementia & diarrhea are characteristic of which of the following?
    Niacin (B3) Deficiency
  134. Which of the following causes beri beri?
    Thiamine (B1) Deficiency
  135. Delayed healing of wounds & rapid mobilization of Vitamin A in the liver may be due to what type of deficiency?
    Zinc
  136. Avascular necrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis is called __________________.
    Legg Calve Perthe's
  137. Which of the following is most likely to accompany Otto’s Pelvis?
    Osteomalacia
  138. Which of the following symptoms is characteristic of Osteoid Osteoma?
    Pain that is most severe at night & is relieved by aspirin
  139. What are bone spurs & lipping of vertebral bodies characteristic of?
    DJD
  140. What is the most common fracture of the wrist?
    Collie’s Fracture
  141. A common source of lytic metastasis to bone in females is the ________________________.
    Lungs (lungs are always lytic)
  142. Which of the following is most likely to develop into ankylosis?
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
  143. Which of the following is the primary site of pathology in Osteoarthritis?
    Articular Cartilage
  144. Which of the following causes excessive release of Ach?
    Tetanus
  145. Which of the following is the most common benign tumor in the adult?
    Astrocytoma
  146. Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord is due to which of the following?
    B12 Deficiency
  147. Which of the following syndromes is a form of polyposis characterized by polyps in the entire gastrointestinal tract?
    Peutz Jegher’s Disease
  148. Kaposi’s sarcoma occurs in approximately 1/3 of the patients with which of the following conditions?
    AIDS
  149. Which of the following represents Type II hypersensitivity?
    • Erythroblastosis?
    • Good Pasture Syndrome
  150. X linked gammaglobulinemia of Bruton is characterized by which of the following?
    B-cell deficiency
  151. Which of the following develops from an IgE mediated immune reaction?
    Panacinar Emphysema
  152. Neonatal hyaline membrane disease is due to which of the following?
    Absence of Surfactant
  153. Which of the following is a genetic defect that causes multiple neuromas?
    Von Recklinhausen’s Disease
  154. The primary biochemical requirement for the diagnosis of Gout is which of the following?
    Uric Acid Levels In The Blood
  155. What is Podagra?
    Gout of the big toe
  156. A fine lateral webbing of the neck would indicate which of the following?
    Turner’s Syndrome
  157. Which of the following reactions is an example of Type III hypersensitivity?
    Arthus
  158. Episodes of temporary blindness & weakness of the dorsiflexors is a characteristic of which of the following?
    Multiple Sclerosis
  159. Which of the following has the greatest potential of degenerating the dorsal columns of the spinal cord?
    Tertiary Syphilis
  160. Which is a poly neuropathy that follows a viral infection?
    Giullian Barre
  161. Coagulation necrosis results from which of the following?
    Ischemia
  162. Which of the following characterizes Amylordosis?
    Interstitial Glycogen Deposits
  163. Which of the following is a reversible cell change?
    Metaplasia
  164. The absence of ganglion cells of the myenteric plexus is characteristic of which of the following?
    Hirshprung’s Disease (congenital megacolon)
  165. Which of the following occurs when histamine is released in the skin as a result of cutaneous trauma?
    Vasodialation of the affected area
  166. New capillaries infiltrate the periphery of a hematoma by producing collagen during a process known as ___________.
    Organization
  167. The circulating level of which blood cell is increased during the body’s response to bacterial infection?
    Neutrophils
  168. Eosinophils are increased by the presence of which of the following?
    Virus
  169. Which cell is present in an area of chronic inflammation & has many nuclei scattered in its cytoplasm?
    Foreign Body Giant Cell
  170. A patient who presents with a severe headache & a hard painful superficial temporal artery probably has which of the following?
    Temporal Arteritis
  171. Which tumor is characterized by excessive production of Catacholemine?
    Neuroblastoma of the Adrenal Medulla
  172. Which condition features dilated, elongated, torturous alteration of the superficial veins?
    Varicosity
  173. Which is the most common area of the brain to find an aneurysm?
    Subarachnoid
  174. Which of the following does not accompany acute inflammation?
    Formation of Granulation Tissue
  175. An abscess of an appendicular head generally contains which type of exudate?
    Pyogenic
  176. SI Joints are usually affected in what condition?
    Ankylosing Spondylitis
  177. Which is the most common hepatic malignancy?
    Metastasis from the Breast or Lung
  178. Which is the most common histological pattern in Bronchiogenic Carcinoma?
    Squamous Cell
  179. Which of the following are Parkinson’s inclusion bodies?
    Lewy Bodies
  180. What area of the body does Mallory Weiss Syndrome affect?
    Esophagus
  181. Which of the following causes demyelination of the peripheral nerves?
    Guillian Barre Syndrome
  182. Which of the following causes demyelination of the nerves in the CNS?
    Multiple Sclerosis
  183. What is the most common nephrotic tumor in children?
    Wilm’s Tumor
  184. What is the most common leukemia in children?
    Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)
  185. What is the most common muscular dystrophy?
    Duchenne’s
  186. Black tarry stools are seen in which of the following?
    Peptic Ulcer
  187. What is the most common neoplasm of the heart?
    Myxoma
  188. What is the most common cancer of the testes?
    Seminoma
  189. Over 2/3 of the cases are idiopathic in which of the following?
    Aplastic Anemia
  190. Which of the following organisms is most commonly found in adult cases of meningitis?
    Strep pneumoniae
  191. Which of the following can cause asthma in kids?
    2nd Hand Smoke
  192. A true hermaphrodite has which of the following?
    Both Male & Female Tissue
  193. Which of the following can cause a fat embolism?
    Fracture of the Shaft of a Long Bone
  194. Which of the following is the atheromatous calcification of the aorta that occurs with normal serum calcium levels?
    Dystrophic Calcification
  195. Increased secretion from the anterior pituitary gland following closure of the epiphyseal plates could produce which of the following?
    Acromegaly
  196. A deficiency, in which of the following trace elements results in tetani similar to that, which accompanies hypocalcemia?
    Magnesium
  197. Who is the most infectious member of the family?
    School Age Children
  198. Which of the following conditions is characterized by T-cell deficiency due to lack of development of the 3rd & 4th pharyngeal pouches, deficiency of the hearts great vessels, mouth, ears, & fauces?
    di Georges
  199. Intercranial calcification occurs most commonly in which of the following?
    Oligiodendroglioma
  200. Which of the following is a primary immunodeficiency?
    Burton’s Agammaglobulimia
  201. Almost all pathological changes of SLE involve which of the following?
    Increased Immune Cells
  202. Which of the following is an autosomal glucocerebral disease with Hepato-Splenomegaly?
    Gaucher’s
  203. Which of the following is a pigment found in regressive cells such as old age pigment?
    Lipofusion
  204. Metastatic osteoblastic tumor in a malignancy most likely originates from which of the following?
    • A. Breast 80% osteolytic, 20% osteoblastic
    • B. Lung always lytic
    • C. Prostate 80% osteoblastic, 20% osteolytic
  205. Which of the following is classified as a benign neoplasm?
    Lipoma
  206. Which of the following is a systemic immune complex reaction?
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
  207. Which of the following substances is produced in the cells & increases inflammation due to tissue damage?
    Histamine
  208. What is the result in the cell as a consequence of thyroid goiter?
    Hyperplasia (increased # of cells)
  209. Which of the following types of thyrotoxicosis is most common in patients under 40?
    Graves Disease
  210. Which of the following is characterized by Recanalization?
    Thrombus (restores flow)
  211. Which of the following Vitamin deficiencies causes megaloblastic anemia?
    Vitamin B12
  212. The most common neoplasm in AIDS patients is which of the following?
    • Kaposi’s Sarcoma (best answer)
    • Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (2nd best answer)
  213. Which of the following is a periosteal encasement of necrotic tissue?
    Sequestrium
  214. Which of the following is a degenerative disease that affects the cranial nerve nuclei?
    Progressive Bulbar Palsy
  215. Dilation of the inner mammary & subscapular arteries, hypertension & weakness of the upper limbs with decreased lower limb pulse occurs in which of the following?
    Coarctation of the Aorta (stricture)
  216. Which cells are increased during viral infections?
    Lymphocytes
  217. Which of the following conditions is characterized by a congenital absence of parasympathetic ganglia in the colon subsequent constipation & dilation of the colon?
    Hirshprung’s Disease
  218. Which of the following conditions is characterized by the presence of a 45X Karyotype?
    Turner’s Syndrome
  219. Which of the following causes cretinism?
    Hypothyroidism
  220. Which of the following involves malformation of the anterior end of the neural tube?
    Anacephaly
  221. Which of the following involves failure of the caudal portion of the neural tube to close?
    Spina Bifida
  222. Which of the following is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly?
    Alzheimer’s Disease
  223. Which of the following is an inherited autosomal dominant disease characterized by progressive movement disorder & dementia?
    Huntington Disease
  224. Which of the following causes the tunica media of medium sized arteries to calcify?
    Monkeberg’s Sclerosis
  225. Which of the following affects the temporal arteries & is associated with long standing hypertension?
    Temporal Arteritis
  226. Which of the following is also known as the “pulse less disease”?
    Takayasu Arteritis
  227. Which of the following is associated with granulomatous inflammation of the aortic arch?
    Takayasu Arteritis
  228. When there is a degeneration of the lateral cells, which of the following is affected?
    Autonomic Function
  229. A starry sky appearance of lymphoid tissue is characteristic of which of the following?
    Burkett’s Lymphoma
  230. Which of the following causes hypoxia without ischemia?
    Anemia
  231. Patch consolidation of the lung is characteristic of which of the following?
    Bronchopneumonia
  232. Giant cell arthritis primarily affects the __________ artery.
    Temporal
  233. A genetic defect in the conversion of Phenylalanine to Tyrosine in the liver would result in which of the following?
    Mental Retardation
  234. A young male from Central Africa has a rapidly expanding mass in the jaw area. What is the diagnosis?
    Burkett’s Lymphoma
  235. A pulmonary embolus most commonly originates where?
    The Lower Extremity
  236. Where would the initial symptoms of Myasthenia Gravis be observed?
    Extraocular Muscles
  237. What type of disease is Ankylosing Spondylitis?
    Autoimmune
  238. Which of the following characterizes Pyknosis?
    Nuclear Condensation
  239. Mask-Like face, claw-like fingers, hypertension & fibrosis of the esophagus are characteristics of which of the following diseases?
    Scleroderma
  240. What is a functional vasospastic disorder, which affects small arteries & arterioles of the extremities?
    Dyspnea
  241. Mature cells of atypical size, shape & organization are characteristic of which of the following ?
    Dysplasia
  242. Antibody synthesis is a primary function of which of the following?
    Plasma Cells
  243. Ischemic necrosis as a consequence of cardiac muscle damage is which type of necrosis?
    Coagulation
  244. What is the most common location for Chondroma?
    Sacrum
  245. Reed Sternberg Cells are associated with which of the following?
    Hodgkin’s Disease
  246. Which heart valve does Rheumatic Fever affect?
    Mitral
  247. Which heart valve does Syphilis affect?
    Tricuspid
  248. Which of the following is not a characteristic of Osteoarthritis (DJD)?
    Joint Swelling
  249. Which of the following describes smoker’s cell transformation?
    Columnar Metaplasia
  250. Which vitamin deficiency causes diarrhea, dementia & dermatitis?
    Niacin (Vitamin B3)
  251. Osteomalacia is due to which of the following?
    Calciferol (Vitamin D) Deficiency
  252. Granulation is associated with which of the following?
    Chronic Inflammation
  253. Which of the following is also known as “joint mice disease”?
    Osteoarthritis
  254. Which of the following is most important in wound healing?
    Vitamin C
  255. What is the most common primary malignancy of bone?
    Multiple Myeloma
  256. Which of the following causes atrophy of the villi?
    Celiac Sprue
  257. Which of the following causes destruction of the synovial capsule?
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
  258. Liquafactive Necrosis is associated with which of the following?
    CNS
  259. Which of the following is a tumor of the skeletal muscle?
    Rhabdomyoma
  260. Which of the following would cause loss of motor control & trouble walking?
    Cerebellar Lesion
  261. Which of the following causes Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia?
    Chronic Iron Deficiency
  262. Which of the following causes Lymphocytosis?
    Viral Infection
  263. Which of the following would result in sensitivity to gluten?
    Celiac Disease
  264. Which of the following causes total bone marrow destruction?
    Aplastic Anemia
  265. Which of the following can be classified as systemic fibrosis?
    Scleroderma
  266. A teratoma involves which of the following?
    All 3 Germ Layers
  267. Right heart failure would cause which the following?
    Liver & Spleen Dysfunction
  268. Which of the following is the most common myocardial infarct?
    Descending Branch of the Left Coronary Artery
  269. Which of the following is a sign of Cystic Fibrosis?
    Increased NACL in Sweat
  270. Increased clastic & blastic activity is associated with _________.
    Paget’s Disease
  271. Which of the following describes Intusseption?
    Telescoping of the Intestines
  272. Which of the following would be suspected in a 25-year-old female with post-coital bleeding?
    Endometriosis
  273. Hypogonadism is a common finding in which of the following?
    Kleinfelter’s Syndrome
  274. Normal lower GI tract mucosa separated by severely inflamed segments would indicate which of the following?
    Krohn’s Disease
  275. Which of the following has the least favorable prognosis?
    Carcinoma of the Pancreas
  276. Which of the following initiates an enzyme cascade that produces bradykinin?
    Hagman Factor
  277. Which of the following is a benign tumor of the Uterus?
    Leiomyoma
  278. Dermal sclerosis, thermal dysfunction of the distal extremities & elongation of the distal hand bones would indicate which of the following?
    Marfan’s Syndrome
  279. What is the most common malignant tumor in adolescents?
    Osteosarcoma
  280. If lateral palating processes fail to join @ the midline it results in which of the following?
    Cleft Palate
  281. Death due to acute poliomyelitis is from which of the following?
    Respiratory paralysis
  282. A 30 year old with coughing, fever & night sweats has which of the following?
    TB
  283. What is the most common site for a fungal infection?
    Skin
  284. Hagarth’s Nodes & Bouchard’s Nodes are associated with which of the following?
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
  285. Which of the following affects the Diaphysis?
    Ewing’s Sarcoma
  286. Which of the following is the most common benign tumor of the hands & feet?
    Enchondroma
  287. A cerebral infarct causes which type of necrosis?
    Liquifactive
  288. Tabes dorsalis is associated with which of the following?
    Syphilis
  289. Which of the following causes cavitation in the spinal cord?
    Syringomyelia
  290. Which of the following causes adult Acromegaly?
    Hyperpituitaryism
  291. Atherosclerosis affects which blood vessel layer?
    Tunica Intima
  292. Which condition is characterized by an imbalance of osteoclastic & osteoblastic activity?
    Osteoporosis
  293. Which of the following is associated with transplant rejection?
    Type IV Hypersensitivity
  294. Which of the following is characteristic of a malignant neoplasm?
    Infiltration
  295. What is granulomatis tissue made up of?
Capillaries & Fibroblasts
  296. Hansen’s disease is known as ____________.
    Leprosy
  297. Which of the following is a characteristic of Celiac Disease?
    Atrophy of Intestinal Villi
  298. Which of the following is a genetic disorder that is sex-linked?
    Duchanne’s Muscular Dystrophy
  299. Myxedema is also called ______________.
    Hypothyroidism
  300. Which of the following is associated with burn victims?
    Hypovolemic Shock
  301. Which type of necrosis is most common in the pancreas?
    Enzymatic
  302. Systemic Thrombosis is most apt to lodge where?
    Periphery of the Lungs
  303. Which of the following is the 1st to be involved in Duchanne’s Muscular Dystrophy?
    Pelvic Girdle
  304. A decrease in Vitamin K is most apt to cause which of the following?
    Bleeding & Bruising
  305. Fissures in the articular cartilage & a loss of proteoglycans are associated with which of the following conditions?
    Osteoarthritis
  306. Which of the following are associated with Reiter’s Syndrome?
    • Arthritis
    • Conjunctivitis
    • Urethritis
  307. Elephantitis is a result of which of the following?
    Lymphatic Obstruction
  308. Multiple Myeloma is a neoplasm of the _______________.
    Plasma Cells
  309. AIDS has an affinity for ______ cells.
    CD4
  310. Pyogenic Osteomyelitis most commonly affects which of the following?
    Metaphysis of Long Bones
  311. What is the most common malignancy in men between 40 & 60 years of age?
    Lung Cancer
  312. What pathology affects the Basal Ganglia?
    Parkinson’s Disease
  313. An excess of uric acid in the blood stream is associated with which of the following?
    Gouty Arthritis
  314. Monosodium Urate Crystals in a joint result in ________.
    Tophi
  315. Which of the following is a neoplasm derived from multiple tissue?
    Teratoma
  316. Raynaud’s Disease is characterized by _____________.
    Digital Vasospasm
  317. What is the most common location for Osteosarcoma?
    Metaphysis
  318. What is clubbing of the fingers most commonly associated with?
    Bronchiogenic Carcinoma
  319. An upper & lower motor neuron lesion is a significant finding in which of the following?
    Lou Gehrig’s Disease
  320. Which type of Hemophilia is associated with factor 8 deficiency?
    Hemophilia A
  321. What does the migration of Leukocytes toward an injury describe?
    Chemotaxis
  322. Smoking is a major causative factor in which of the following?
    Thromboangitis Obliterans
  323. Which of the following has been implicated as a causative agent in cervical cancer?
    Herpes Papilioma Virus (HPV)
  324. What sign is most common in Kwashiorkor?
    Edema
  325. The presence of Eosinophils indicates what type of infection?
    Fungal
  326. The presence of Lymphocytes indicates what type of infection?
    Viral
  327. The presence of Neutrophils indicates what type of infection?
    Bacterial
  328. Wool Sorter’s Disease is an infection of the ________________.
    Respiratory System
  329. Which of the following is directly linked to a decline in cancer of the cervix?
    Condom Use
  330. Which of the following causes edema?
    Protein Deficiency
  331. What is the most common symptom of Esophageal Cancer?
    Dysphagia
  332. Which of the following can be detected on the x-ray of a healing fracture?
    Callous Formation
  333. Lewy Bodies are inclusion bodies that accompany which of the following?
    Parkinson’s Disease
  334. What is the most common location for Osteochondroma?
    Knee
  335. What is the most common benign tumor of the axial skeleton?
    Hemangioma
  336. What are Gall Stones primarily made of? 
Cholesterol
  337. What are Kidney Stones primarily made of?
    Calcium
  338. What is the most common malignant tumor of bone in children?
    Osteogenic Sarcoma
  339. What type of bone marrow is found in cancellous bone?
    Yellow
  340. Pulmonary hypertension causes which of the following?
    Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
  341. What is the most common area of the heart damaged by myocardial infarction?
    Left Ventricle
  342. Which of the following constitutes the greatest threat to a person with thrombophlebitis?
    Embolism in the Lungs
  343. Which of the following is a malignant tumor that rarely metastasizes?
    Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  344. Which of the following is a congenital malformation with incomplete fusion?
    Spina Bifida
  345. Keloids are most common among which of the following?
    African Americans
  346. Which joint is most commonly affected by Osteoarthritis?
    Knee
  347. Dysplasia in a PAP smear is characteristic of which of the following?
    Carcinoma In Situ
  348. Local deposition of calcium in necrotic tissue is termed ____________.
    Dystrophic Calcification
  349. Which of the following is associated with Brown Atrophy?
    Lipofuscion
  350. A 25 year old presents with soft tender red spots on the vulva & a frothy foul smelling discharge. What organism is to blame?
    Trichimonis
  351. What causes a Bulls Eye Rash?
    Lyme’s Disease
  352. Which of the following is the most common location for an aneurysm?
    Abdominal Aorta
  353. Which of the following is a non-progressive muscular dysfunction due to a defect or injury to the brain or brainstem?
    Cerebral Palsy
  354. Which of the following cells is least likely to regenerate?
    Neuron
  355. Which of the following is characterized by proteinuria & hypoalbuminemia?
    Nephrotic Syndrome
  356. High levels of urinary hydroxyproline are associated with which of the following?
    Paget’s Disease
  357. Which lobe of the prostate is most commonly affected by cancer?
    Posterior
  358. The 1st process observed following fracture is the generation of a __________.
    Hematoma
  359. Gumma is associated with which of the following?
    Syphilis
  360. Which of the following organisms is associated with Toxic Shock Syndrome?
    Staph aureus
  361. Which of the following is associated with infectious mono?
    Epstein Barr
  362. A 40-year-old male presents with weight loss, increased appetite & tremors. What is the diagnosis?
    Reiter’s Syndrome
  363. Osgood Schlatter’s is associated with which of the following?
    Avulsion of the Tibial Tuberosity
  364. Proliferative cells forming new cells from original cells are called ___________.
    Hyperplasia
  365. Which of the following forms a chocolate like cyst on an Ovary?
    Endometrioma
  366. What are Tophi composed of?
    Urate Crystals
  367. Which disease most common in kids is characterized by excess glycogen stored in the liver & kidneys?
    Von Gierke’s
  368. Osgood Schlatter’s Disease principally affects which of the following?
    Tibial Tuberosity
  369. Which of the following is also known as Buerger’s Disease?
    Thromboangitis Obliterans
  370. Intusseption is seen in which of the following diseases?
    Hirshprung’s Disease
  371. What are common sources of Gluten?
    Barley, Oats & Wheat
  372. The passage of blood cells through an intact capillary wall into the tissue is known as ____________.
    Diapedesis
  373. Which of the following presents with multiple neurofibromas & café au lait spots?
    Von Recklinhausen’s
  374. Which of the following is a form of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis?
    Still’s
  375. Which of the following causes progressive severe atrophy of the cerebral cortex?
    Alzheimer’s
  376. Which of the following causes thickening & deformity of bone?
    Paget’s
  377. Which of the following is associated with protein malnutrition?
    Kwashiorkor
  378. Which of the following is associated with Osteitis Deformans?
    Paget’s
  379. Which of the following is associated with aluminum deposits in the brain?
    Alzheimer’s
  380. Which of the following is associated with calorie malnutrition?
    Marasmus
  381. Which of the following is associated with paralysis agitans?
    Parkinson’s
  382. Which of the following is caused by a Vitamin D deficiency?
    Osteomalacia
  383. Which of the following causes demyelinization of the spinal cord?
    Multiple Sclerosis
  384. Which of the following is associated with passage of blood cells through an intact capillary wall into the tissue?
    Diapedesis
  385. Which of the following is the most common location of carcinoma in the stomach?
    Pylorus
  386. Which of the following is characterized by increased clastic & blastic activity?
    Paget’s
  387. Which of the following is associated with improper copper metabolism?
    Wilson’s Disease
  388. Which of the following is associated with lesions of sclerosis of the spinocerebellar tract?
    Friedreich’s ataxia
  389. Which of the following is the most common malignant tumor of the intestine?
    Adenocarcinoma
  390. Which of the following is associated with the absence of an organ?
    Agenesis
  391. Which of the following is associated with 45X Karyotype?
    Turner’s Syndrome
  392. Which of the following is the most common location of carcinoma in the pancreas?
    Head
  393. Which of the following is characterized by a “broom stick” appearance on plain film x-ray?
    Rickets
  394. Which of the following is associated with TB of the spine?
    Pott’s Disease
  395. Which of the following is associated with increase NaCl in sweat?
    Cystic Fibrosis
  396. Which of the following is associated with sensitivity to gluten?
    Celiac Disease
  397. Which of the following is associated with a decrease in size?
    Atrophy
  398. Which of the following is a degenerative change that occurs in everyone?
    Osteoarthritis
  399. Which of the following results from an inability to digest purines?
    Gouty Arthritis
  400. Which of the following is associated with bacteria in the blood?
    Bacteremia
  401. Which of the following is caused by exposure to iron dust?
    Siderosis
  402. Which of the following is associated with difficulty swallowing?
    Dysphagia
  403. Which of the following passes through the placenta & is a major antibody against viruses, bacteria, & toxins?
    IgG
  404. Which of the following it associated with Mesothelioma?
    Asbestos Exposure
  405. Which of the following has an unknown function?
    IgD
  406. Which of the following is associated with twisting of an organ?
    Volvulus
  407. Which of the following is associated with an increase in size?
    Hypertrophy
  408. Which of the following is related to a deficiency of oxygen?
    Hypoxia
  409. Which of the following is the most common bone cancer in children?
    Osteosarcoma
  410. Which of the following is a tumor of all three germinal layers?
    Teratoma
  411. Which of the following describes an increase in the number of cells?
    Hyperplasia
  412. Which of the following is associated with a lack or loss of RBC’s?
    Anemia
  413. Which of the following describes a cell changing from one cell type to another?
    Metaplasia
  414. Which of the following is associated with “Black Lung Disease”?
    Anthracosis
  415. Which of the following describes the intestine telescoping onto itself?
    Intussusceptions
  416. Which lung disease is associated with aircraft manufacturing?
    Berylliosis
  417. Which of the following is associated with a congenital megacolon?
    Hirshprung’s Disease
  418. Which of the following is associated with an increase in RBC’s?
    Polycythemia
  419. Which of the following causes thickening, calcification & loss of elasticity of the arterial walls?
    Arteriosclerosis
  420. Which of the following causes a foul smelling vaginal discharge?
    Gardenella Vaginalis
  421. Which of the following is an out pouching in the intestine?
    Diverticula
  422. Which of the following produces “skip lesions”?
    Crohn’s
  423. Which of the following is a localized dilation of an artery?
    Aneurysm
  424. Which of the following is associated with deposition of fatty plaques within the arteries?
    Atherosclerosis
  425. Which of the following is the most common Pelvic Inflammatory disease?
    Chlamydia trachomatis
  426. Which type of leukemia is most commonly seen in children?
    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
  427. Which type of leukemia is associated with the “Philadelphia Chromosome”?
    Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia (CML)
  428. Which of the following types of leukemia is seen mostly in people over the age of 60?
    • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
    • Which of the following is associated with Reed Sternberg cells?
    • Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
  429. Which of the following is considered a Type I hypersensitivity reaction?
    Anaphylactic
  430. Which of the following is considered a Type II hypersensitivity reaction?
    Cytotoxic
  431. Which of the following is considered a Type III hypersensitivity reaction?
    Immune Complex
  432. Which of the following is considered a Type IV hypersensitivity reaction?
    Delayed
  433. Which of the following is involved in the early part of every immune response?
    IgM
  434. Which of the following produces decreased joint space, Subchondral sclerosis & osteophytes?
    Osteoarthritis
  435. Which of the following produces excess uric acid in the blood L& leads to tophi formation?
    Gouty Arthritis
  436. Which of the following is associated with Hagarth’s Nodes & Bouchard’s Nodes?
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
  437. Which of the following benign tumors usually affects the epiphysis of a bone?
    • Chonroblasoma
    • Giant Cell Tumor
  438. Which of the following benign tumors usually affects the metaphysis of a bone?
    • Chondromyxoid Fibroma
    • Non-ossifying Fibroma
    • Osteoid Osteoma
    • Osteoblastoma
    • Osteochondroma
  439. Which of the following malignant tumors usually affects the metaphysis of a bone?
    Osteosarcoma
  440. Which of the following benign tumors usually affects the diaphysis of a bone?
    • Enchondroma
    • Fibrous Dysplasia
  441. Which of the following malignant tumors usually affects the diaphysis of a bone?
    • Chondrosarcoma
    • Ewing’s Sarcoma
  442. Which of the following results in alcoholic psychosis due to a depletion of thiamine as a result of severe alcoholism?
    Korsakoff
  443. Which of the following is a fatty tumor?
    Lipoma
  444. Which of the following is a yellow tumor of connective tissue?
    Xanthoma
  445. Which of the following is a tumor of the cartilage?
    Chondroma
  446. Which of the following is the most common cancer of the testes?
    Seminoma
  447. Which of the following is the most common cancer of the spine?
    Metastasis
  448. Which of the following is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy?
    Guillian-Barre’ Syndrome
  449. Which of the following is the most common life-threatening disease of the PNS?
    Barre-Barre’ Syndrome
  450. Which of the following is a muscular disease caused by an autoimmune mediated loss of ACH receptors & characterized by weakness & fatigue of skeletal muscles?
    Myasthenia Gravis
  451. Which of the following bone fractures is caused by repetitive physical activity?
    Stress Fracture
  452. Which of the following is a benign bone tumor?
    Osteoid Osteoma
  453. Which of the following is the most common malignant primary tumor of bone?
    Osteosarcoma
  454. Which of the following tumors is characterized by production of neoplastic cartilage?
    Chondrosarcoma

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