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  1. Gymnosperm phyla
    • A. Coniferophyta (primary Phyla)
    • B. Cycodophyta
    • C. Ginkgophyta
    • D. Gnetophyta
  2. Cycodophyta
    • Primary plants in Triassic- Jurassic
    • dioecious- separate male and female plants
  3. Ginkgophyta
    • one species
    • dioecious
  4. Gnetophyta
    • Weirdest plants on earth
    • Welwitched ex: Namib Desert
  5. Solutions to seedless plant problem
    • A. Dessication 
    •     1.) Sperm vulnerable to desiccation
    •     2.) Sperm transport
    • B. Gametophyte too small to support
    • C. Competition
  6. Sperm vulnerable to desiccation
    • Solved by specialized male gametophyte
    • -very small because the male gametophyte needs to fit inside pollen and pollen tube.
    • Sperm always inside protective structure
    • -Pollen
    • -Inside seed cone (during pollen tube growth)
  7. Sperm transport
    • Solved by specialized male gametophyte
    • -very small: fits inside pollen and pollen tube
    • Stage of transport
    • -wind --> carries the pollen from pollen cone to pollen tube
    • -pollen tube carries sperm to egg.
  8. Gametophyte too small to support
    • Young sporophyte
    • -Keep megaspore on old sporophyte
    • -Develops into gametophyte on old sporophyte
    • -Fertilization into gametophyte on old sporophyte
    • -Zygote to embryo into gametophyte on old sporophyte
  9. Competition
    • 1.) for light
    • -Primary growth: growth in (Seedless plants and Gymnosperm)
    • -Secondary growth: Growth in diameter (Gymnosperm)

    • 2.) Competition for space
    • - old sporophyte: spore --> gametopyhte develops--> egg/sperm--> fertilization--> embryos--> new sporophyte
    • -Gymosperm: -spores--> gametophyte--> fertlization --> embryo --> new sporophyte 
    • (Increase chance of producing new sporophyte
  10. Gymnosperm Shortcoming
    • -Seeds
    • -Pollunation
    •   -Plant has no control over where pollen goes.
    •   -Pollen inside ovule
  11. Seed
    • -heavier so it doesn't float aw well as your spores.
    • -difficult to disperse long distance because it's large and heavy.
  12. Polluntion
    • A. Plant has no control over where pollen goes.
    • Most produce large quantities. 
    • Expensive to mistake.
    • B. Pollen inside ovule
    • - 1-2 mm from egg
    • No opportunity for female gametophyte to intract with pollen/ pollen tube to learn about it. 
    • - undesirable pollen to screen out
    • -from same plant from different species defective.
    • -No pollen selectively
Card Set
Vascular Plants
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