Physiology.txt

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Physiology.txt
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Physiology
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  1. What differentiates a monosynaptic reflex from a polysynaptic reflex?
    Renshaw Cells
  2. The pneumotoxic center is responsible for which of the following?
    Controls Inspiration
  3. The disassociation curve of hemoglobin would shift to the left by increasing which of the following?
    O2
  4. Which substance made by the kidney is responsible for the O2 carrying capacity of the blood?
    Erythropoieten
  5. Which of the following produces humeral immunity?
    B-Cells
  6. Which of the following are cell mediated?
    T-Cells
  7. Which of the following are “natural killers”?
    • Monocytes
    • Eosinophils
    • Neutrophils
  8. Which of the following substances causes the cardiac sphincter to close?
    Enterogastone
  9. Which of the following is responsible for the efferent portion of the optic reflex?
    Oculomotor Nerve (CN III)
  10. Cell mediated immunity is controlled by which of the following?
    T-Cells
  11. Which of the following is most characteristic of bacterial inflammation?
    Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils
  12. Which of the following secretes mucous into the duodenum?
    Brunner’s Glands
  13. Which of the following enzymes is responsible for promoting fertilization?
    Hyaluronidase
  14. Which part of the blood is responsible for carrying O2?
    Hemoglobin
  15. How much of the glomular filtrate that goes to the tubules is reabsorbed into the systemic circulation?
    99%
  16. Which of the following will result from hyperventilation?
    Respiratory Alkalosis
  17. Which of the following activates renin in the kidney?
    Decreased Blood Pressure
  18. Lymph nodes are responsible for the removal of ________ from the interstitial fluid.
    Protein
  19. Which of the following is a “natural killer”?
    Monocyte
  20. What differentiates a monosynaptic reflex from a polysynaptic reflex?
    Presence of Interneurons
  21. The majority of cholesterol is transported in the body via ______.
    LDL
  22. Sartoli Cells produce which of the following?
    Androgen Binding Protein
  23. The majority of glucose is reabsorbed where?
    Proximal Convoluted Tubule
  24. Which of the following cranial nerves partially mediates motor control in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing?
    CN IX
  25. What blocks binding sights thereby preventing cross-bridges?
    Tropomyosin
  26. Sugars are absorbed in which of the following forms?
    Monosachrides
  27. Bile salts are reabsorbed in the body via which of the following?
    Portal Venous System
  28. Which of the following causes decreased lymphatic flow?
    Increase in Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure
  29. What do chief cells produce?
    Pepsinogen
  30. Neuron permeability to Na+ is greatest at which of the following times?
    Depolarization During Action Potential
  31. Transmitted by the dorsal columns & medial lemniscal pathway is which of the following?
    2 Point Discrimination, Vibration & Fine Touch
  32. Which WBC has an increased concentration in the blood stream under normal circumstances?
    Neutrophils
  33. During isotonic contraction which bands shorten & disappear?
    H-Bands
  34. The VPM nucleus of the thalamus synapses with which of the following?
    Posterior Central Gyrus
  35. Na+ is a co-transport for which of the following?
    Glucose
  36. Which of the following makes action potential of a neuron stronger?
    Increased Stimulation
  37. In the upright position, an adult utilizes which of the following?
    Lower Lung
  38. What causes an increase in thirst?
    Increased Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity
  39. Melatonin is derived from which of the following?
    Pineal Gland
  40. How are amino acids absorbed in the intestinal tract?
    Via Facilitated Diffusion
  41. What doesn’t extend into the thalamus?
    Olfaction
  42. During exercise an increase in muscle mass is due to which of the following?
    Increase in the Number of Actin-Myosin Filaments in each Fiber
  43. What is the function of a monocyte?
    Antigen Presenting
  44. Which of the following binds with the alpha-receptor on vascular smooth muscle to cause vasoconstriction?
    Norepinephrine
  45. With the head in the vertical position which of the following will detect static equilibrium?
    Utricle
  46. Which of the following is the function of the oval window?
    Transmit Vibration to the Scala Vestibuli
  47. Which neurotransmitter is released at the Postganglionic Sympathetics?
    Norepinephrine
  48. Secretin causes release of which of the following?
    Bicarbonate
  49. Renal ultra-filtration occurs in which location of the kidney?
    Glomerular Capillaries
  50. Which area of the CNS recognizes thermostatic variation?
    Anterior Hypothalamus
  51. Which of the following increases gastric motility?
    Gastrin
  52. In acidosis the kidney _______ the secretion of ________.
    Increases, Bicarbonate
  53. Pepsinogen, the precursor to pepsin is produced in which of the following organs?
    Stomach
  54. CHO digestion begins in which part of the body?
    Mouth
  55. Which of the following substances is an anticoagulant?
    Heparin
  56. The flow of urine after the minor calyx is into the ________.
    Major Calyx
  57. Which of the following substances is not a catacholamine?
    Acetylcholine
  58. Which of the following is a “natural killer”?
    Eosinophils
  59. Which of the following are secreted in response to sympathetic stimulation?
    Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
  60. Which of the following blood elements functions in blood coagulation?
    Platelets
  61. The movement of white blood cells in response to a concentration gradient is called what?
    Chemotaxis
  62. Which of the following mediates recurrent inhibition in the spinal cord?
    Renshaw Cells
  63. Which of the following does not directly affect muscle tone?
    Posterior Column
  64. What is the descending order of solubility coefficient of respiration?
    • Carbon Dioxide
    • O2
    • Nitrogen
  65. Which of the following neurotransmitters inhibits the transmission of pain?
    Encephalin
  66. Which of the following renal structures is essential for isotonic urine production?
    Proximal Tubule
  67. The portion of the myofibril that lies between adjacent Z lines is called what?
    Sarcomere
  68. The major way by which cholesterol is eliminated from the body is via which of the following?
    Feces
  69. Which of the following does not increase GFR?
    Decreased Na+ levels
  70. Most end products of digestion are absorbed into the blood stream from the __________.
    Duodenum
  71. Which of the following cranial nerves controls the muscles of mastication?
    CN V
  72. Which of the following transforms light energy into nerve impulse?
    Retina
  73. Which of the following occurs during accommodation to near vision?
    Ciliary Muscles Contract
  74. Which of the following removes the majority of Acetylcholine from the sympathetic cleft?
    Enzymatic Degeneration
  75. Which of the following is a “natural killer”?
    Neutrophil
  76. Which of the following is found in greater amounts in the intracellular fluid than the extracellular fluid?
    K+
  77. Which of the following converts ammonia to urea?
    Liver
  78. Stimulation of multiple neurons is known as _____________.
    Convergence
  79. Excess creatinine in the urine indicates ________________.
    Tubular Secretion
  80. Which of the following is also known as the Myenteric Plexus?
    Auerbach’s Plexus
  81. Which of the following stimulates release of renin from the JG cells?
    Decreased Na+ in the Distal Tubule
  82. Secondary respiratory acidosis will not likely accompany which of the following?
    Diabetes Mellitis
  83. Which of the following are not affected by chemoreceptors?
    Light on the Retina
  84. A normal nerve ending is –70mv. If it goes to –80mv which of the following will occur?
    Hyperpolarization
  85. Which of the following is not involved in clot formation?
    Histamine
  86. When a post-synaptic potential has not reached its threshold of excitation it is called ___________.
    Facilitated
  87. Which of the following is the integrated system of the spinal cord?
    Cerebral Motor Cortex
  88. When air temperature is greater than internal body temperature, heat lost from the body is due to which of the following?
    Evaporation
  89. Multiple inputs used to excite a single neuron are called ___________.
    Convergence
  90. When a molecule moves from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration it is called ________________.
    Simple Diffusion
  91. Which of the following is located in the muscular layer of the stomach?
    Auerbach’s Plexus
  92. Which of the following is located in the Submucosa?
    Meissner’s Plexus
  93. Which of the following are regulated by the hypothalamus?
    • Body temperature
    • Fear
    • Hunger
    • Rage
    • Thirst
  94. Which of the following nerve endings senses vibration?
    Pacinian Corpuscles
  95. When the resting membrane potential drops to an even more negative number the membrane is said to be _____________.
    Hyperpolarized
  96. In repolarization of an action potential there is an increased diffusion of which of the following out of the cell?
    K+
  97. Which of the following stores CA++ in the muscle?
    Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
  98. The ascending phase of the action potential is due to which of the following?
    Active Influx of Na+
  99. Parasympathetic stimulation does not control which of the following?
    Peripheral Vasoconstriction
  100. Which of the following is required to absorb B12?
    Intrinsic Factor
  101. The production of which of the following substances is a result of prostaglandin synthesis?
    Arachidonate
  102. Parasympathetic preganglionic nerves control the production of which of the following?
    Acetylcholine
  103. The maximum water reabsorption takes place where in the nephron?
    Proximal Tubule
  104. What is the primary determinant in promoting glomerular filtration?
    Hydrostatic Pressure of Glomerular Capillaries
  105. The largest area of the sensory is dedicated to which of the following parts of the body?
    Head
  106. Which of the following cells produce HCL & intrinsic factor?
    Parietal Cells
  107. Which of the following tracts transmits information from Pacinian Corpuscles & Meissner’s Corpuscles?
    Dorsal Column
  108. The corticospinal tract controls which of the following?
    Muscles of the Distal Extremities
  109. Which of the following is the nitrogenous by-product of skeletal muscle breakdown?
    Creatinine
  110. Normally the glucose filtered in through the Glomerulus is reabsorbed in the ______________.
    Proximal Tubule
  111. Slow twitch fibers will help an athlete performing which of the following?
    Marathon Running
  112. The primary cause of respiratory acidosis is which of the following?
    Emphysema
  113. Hydrogen ions are exchanged for _________ in the kidney?
    Bicarbonate
  114. The stoichemistry of the Na+, K+ pump is as follows ____ions out of the cell & ___ ions into the cell.
    3Na+, 2K+
  115. Which of the following is associated with motor functions?
    Frontal Lobe
  116. Which of the following immunoglobulins is associated with anaphylaxis?
    IgE
  117. Which of the following is associated with sensory functions?
    Parietal Lobe
  118. Which of the following is associated with visual functions?
    Occipital Lobe
  119. Low pH of blood due to hypoventilation causes which of the following?
    Respiratory Acidosis
  120. Which of the following is most apt to produce the lowest renal filtration of glucose?
    Hypoglycemia
  121. Which of the following is associated with memory functions?
    Temporal Lobe
  122. Which of the following is produced in the hypothalamus to inhibit growth hormone?
    Somatostatin
  123. Which of the following is formed in the liver & other tissues & mediates the effects of growth hormone?
    Somatomedin
  124. Where is the principal site for fat digestion?
    Duodenum
  125. Which of the following distinguishes the electrical activity of myocardial tissue from that of skeletal muscle?
    Longer Absolute Refractory Period
  126. Which of the following is responsible for Hyperpolarization of the cell?
    Increased extracellular K+
  127. Golgi tendon organs are considered which type of receptors?
    Mechanoreceptors
  128. Urea comes from the breakdown of which of the following?
    Proteins
  129. Which of the following fluids represent the greatest portion of body weight?
    Intercellular
  130. The shortening that a muscle undergoes as the prime mover is called what type of contraction?
    Concentric
  131. Which lobe of the brain creates a visual image by defining it along contrast lines & defining the lines & borders?
    Occipital Lobe
  132. When exercising a muscle which of the following does not cause a muscle to shorten?
    Isometric Exercises
  133. Which of the following is the slowest to develop tension?
    Gastrointestinal Muscle
  134. Which of the following cell types is concerned with cell-mediated immunity?
    T-Cells
  135. Diabetes can produce which of the following?
    Metabolic Acidosis
  136. Which of the following cell types is concerned with humeral mediated immunity?
    B-Cells
  137. The primary regulator of body temperature is which of the following?
    Hypothalamus
  138. Where does the initial breakdown of protein occur?
    Stomach
  139. Which of the following forms of neuronal activity is responsible for Vasodialation in organs?
    Decreased Sympathetics
  140. Skeletal muscle contains _________ & smooth muscle does not.
    Tubules
  141. Which of the following controls thirst?
    Hypothalamus
  142. Which substance is involved in the positive feedback system in blood clotting?
    Thrombin
  143. Which of the following is responsible for the initiation of action potential?
    Stimulus Strong Enough to Raise the Resting Membrane Potential to Threshold
  144. Which of the following laws limits respiratory excursion via the vagus nerve?
    Hering-Breuer Law
  145. Which of the following contains the motor area for voluntary eye movement?
    Frontal Lobe
  146. Which substance made by the kidney is responsible for the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood?
    Erythropoieten
  147. Which of the following substances binds with ionic Ca++?
    Troponin
  148. Which of the following substances causes the release of pepsinogen from chief cells?
    Gastrin
  149. Which of the following vitamins is necessary for digestion if you consume a great deal of fat?
    Vitamin E
  150. The spinothalamic tract conveys information from which peripheral structures?
    Free Nerve Endings
  151. All sensory information from the periphery reaches which part of the brain?
    Diencephalon
  152. Which of the following is a function of the superior colliculi?
    Relays Visual Information
  153. Which of the following steps in muscle contraction follow the chemical transmitter step?
    Depolarization of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
  154. A Pacinian corpuscle is which type of receptor?
    Mechanoreceptor
  155. Which of the following is controlled by the hypothalamus?
    Rage
  156. Which of the following substances is the most potent vasodilator?
    Bradykinin
  157. Which of the following stimulates parathyroid hormone?
    Decreased Ca++ in the blood
  158. Which of the following is responsible for the detection of pain?
    Free Nerve Endings
  159. Which of the following determines the net amount of tension developed in skeletal muscle?
    Number of Motor Units Recruited
  160. Which of the following is produced by mast cells?
    Bradykinin
  161. CA++ binds to ________ in smooth muscle.
    Calmodulin
  162. Which of the following structures processes learning & short-term memory?
    Hippocampus
  163. Which of the following occurs in connective tissue & secretes histamine?
    Mast Cells
  164. The auditory cortex is primarily located in which part of the brain?
    Superior Temporal
  165. ACTH stimulates which of the following?
    Cortisol Production from the Zona Fasciculata
  166. Which of the following is controlled by the hypothalamus?
    Fear
  167. Which of the following is true of the relative refractory period?
    Action potential can be elicited when a greater than normal stimulus is produced.
  168. Which of the following does sympathetic stimulation not affect?
    Gastric Secretions
  169. Which of the following tests the integrity of the oculomotor nerve?
    Pupillary Constriction
  170. The release of secretin stimulates which of the following?
    Bicarbonate Secretion from the Pancreas
  171. In a normal functioning kidney _____ is filtered & ______ is not.
    Urea, Albumin
  172. Which of the following is transmitted by free nerve endings?
    Nociception
  173. The resting membrane potential is the result of which of the following?
    K+ Diffusion
  174. The most rapidly transmitted somatosensory impulses travel to the brain via which tract?
    Dorsal Column
  175. Information from the basal ganglia is next sent to which of the following areas?
    Spinal Cord
  176. Which of the following is a nerve cell that wraps around blood vessels & nerves in the CNS?
    Astrocytes
  177. Which of the following structures is responsible for detection of deep pressure?
    Merkel’s Disk
  178. The majority of fluid for the transport of sperm is produced where?
    Seminal Vesicles
  179. Secretion of which of the following organs stimulates the production of bicarbonate?
    Small Intestine
  180. All sensory receptors classified as pain receptors are which of the following?
    Free Nerve Endings
  181. Which of the following determines the net amount of tension developed in skeletal muscle?
    Number of Motor Units Recruited
  182. Which of the following is a rapidly adapting receptor?
    Pacinian Corpuscles
  183. Which of the following controls hunger?
    Hypothalamus
  184. Salatory conduction is described as conduction or an action potential through which type of fiber?
    Myelinated Nerve
  185. In order to absorb vitamin B12, which of the following is required?
    Intrinsic Factor
  186. The greatest increase in peripheral vascular restriction in response to wide spread sympathetic stimulation is going to affect which tissue?
    Cutaneous
  187. Which of the following is a rapidly adapting receptor?
    Pacinian Corpuscle
  188. Which law states that ventricular pressure depends on muscular tension, size & shape of the heart?
    LaPlace’s Law
  189. Which WBC stimulates the secretion of heparin, histamine & bradykinin?
    Mast Cells
  190. Which of the following stimulates Pacinian Corpuscles?
    Insignificant Vibration
  191. What is the ratio of O2 per hemoglobin molecule in the blood?
    4:1
  192. Extracellular Ca++ concentrations have a ________ effect on skeletal muscle contractibility & a __________ effect on smooth muscle.
    Significant, Minimal
  193. Protein metabolism can best be measured through which of the following?
    Urea in the Urine
  194. Which lobe of the brain controls voluntary eye movement?
    Frontal Lobe
  195. Glomerulus consists primarily of ________ that contain relative _________ pressure compared to similar vessels in the body.
    Capillaries, High
  196. Which of the following conditions influences relative refractory period?
    Increased K+
  197. Which of the following organelles of skeletal muscle transmits the action potential from outside of the cell to inside the cell?
    T-Tubules
  198. The resting membrane potential of a neural membrane is said to be ________.
    Polar
  199. What maintains basic body temperature when the entire body is chilled?
    Shivering
  200. Which of the following is the stimulus to activate the flexor-withdraw response?
    Pain
  201. PO2 is detected by which part of the body?
    Chemosensitive Areas of the Carotid Body
  202. Stimulation of which of the following tracts causes involuntary contraction of an excitatory extensor?
    Vestibulospinal
  203. Which of the following structures is not involved in the light reflex?
    Lateral Geniculate
  204. Which of the following is a characteristic of smooth muscle?
    Actin
  205. Which of the following detaches myosin-actin cross bridges in skeletal muscle?
    Binding of ATP to Myosin
  206. Insulin secretion decreases which of the following?
    Gluconeogenesis
  207. Which of the following laws state that the solubility of gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas?
    Henry’s Law
  208. Which sensory receptor registers pain?
    Nociceptor
  209. Influx of which ion is responsible for depolarization?
    Sodium
  210. The stomach secretes which of the following substances?
    Gastrin
  211. Which of the following is responsible for increasing blood sugar?
    Glucagon
  212. What is the function of Gastrin?
    • Activates Parietal Cells
    • Activates Chief Cells
  213. The greatest % of CO2 is transported as which of the following?
    Bicarbonate ions = 70%
  214. What is the origin of the glandular hypophysis?
    Rathke’s Pouch
  215. Which of the following is actively secreted in the renal tubular system?
    K+
  216. Which substance has the lowest renal clearance under normal circumstances?
    Glucose
  217. The pain withdrawal reflex is categorized as a ___________.
    Flexor Reflex
  218. Continuous stimulation leading to decreased response is known as which of the following?
    Adaptation
  219. The pancreas secretes which of the following substances?
    Somatostatin
  220. During the resting phase of a neuron what is secreted?
    Na+ out
  221. Which of the following will lengthen the time for blood clotting?
    Decreased Vitamin K
  222. Which of the following means of heat loss occurs when you come into contact with a cold object?
    Conduction
  223. When air currents decrease body temperature, what type of heat loss is this?
    Convection
  224. Action potentials in larger diameter axons travel faster than smaller diameter axons because they have ___________.
    Less Resistance
  225. The sympathetic nervous system increases many body functions but the _____________ sustains these functions.
    Adrenal Cortex
  226. Neurotransmitter molecules are released at nerve cell endings due to which ion?
    Ca++
  227. Which of the following is transported in the lymphatic system?
    Chylomicrons
  228. An increase in thyroid hormone would result in which of the following?
    Increase Fat Metabolism
  229. Which of the following conditions is most likely to cause edema?
    Increased Venous Pressure
  230. Which of the following is increased in fast twitch muscle fibers?
    Concentration of Glycolytic Enzymes
  231. Renin cleaves _______________ to _________________.
    Angiotensinogen, Angiotensin I
  232. During muscle contraction what combines with Ca++?
    Troponin
  233. Which of the following does not affect gastric motility?
    Isotonic Chyme
  234. Which of the following does the cerebellum not control?
    Initiation of Voluntary Movements
  235. Membrane potential that prevents net diffusion of an ion across the membrane is __________.
    Resting
  236. Angiotension II is responsible for which of the following?
    Constriction of Arterioles
  237. What reduces peripheral arterial pressure?
    Decreased Sympathetic Activity
  238. Which vessel has the greatest resistance in the periphery?
    Arterioles
  239. Chloride ions are actually reabsorbed in which area of the kidney?
    Distal Convoluted Tubule
  240. Which of the following does not promote the secretion of glucose?
    Acetylcholine
  241. Which of the following has the largest cross-sectional area?
    Capillaries
  242. Which of the following causes synaptic impulses to be depleted?
    Cholinesterase
  243. Which of the following structures is responsible for the production of melatonin?
    Pineal Gland
  244. Which of the following secrete mucous into the duodenum?
    Brunner’s Gland
  245. ACTH stimulates production of which of the following?
    Cortisol
  246. Lack of intrinsic factor interferes with absorption of what?
    Vitamin B12
  247. Which of the following vitamins are depleted 1st on a hot summer day?
    Vitamins B & C
  248. Which of the following is the most potent vasoconstrictor?
    Angiotension II
  249. Trypsin is a thymogen that activates which of the following?
    Pancreatic Enzymes
  250. Which of the following takes calcium out of the blood & into the bone?
    Calcitonin
  251. Which of the following is important in maintaining basal metabolism?
    Triiodothronine
  252. Which of the following increases blood calcium & decreases reabsorption of phosphates?
    Parathyroid
  253. Which of the following is a glucocorticoid that controls metabolism of carbohydrates, fats & proteins?
    Cortisol
  254. Where are osmoreceptors located?
    Hypothalamus
  255. How is most of the metabolically produced CO2 transported?
    Via Plasma
  256. Node to node conduction best describes which of the following?
    Salatory Conduction
  257. Which of the following chemicals produces Hyperpolarization reactions in humans?
    Potassium
  258. The adrenal medulla is analogous to which of the following?
    Postganglionic Sympathetic Nerves
  259. Which of the following is derived from monocytes?
    Macrophages
  260. Neurons, which mediate conscious control over single muscle groups, are located in the ______________.
    Pre-motor cortex
  261. When there is a significant decrease in extracellular Na+ there is also an increase in which of the following?
    Amplitude of Action Potential
  262. Which ion is primarily responsible for reversing potential of over shoot of an action potential?
    Na+
  263. The primary function of the lymphatic system is to control which of the following?
    Concentration of Protein in the Interstitial Fluid
  264. HCL is responsible for activation of which of the following?
    Pepsinogen
  265. The chemosensitive area of the Medulla Oblongata is most sensitive to which of the following?
    H+ ions
  266. The release of a hormone from the anterior pituitary will stimulate the release of which of the following?
    Thyroxine
  267. Where is the somatosensory area of the brain located?
    Parietal Lobe
  268. In the kidney tubule which of the following is converted into ammonia?
    Glutamine
  269. Stimulation of gut smooth muscle by the sympathetic nervous system causes which of the following?
    Hyperpolarization & Decreased Function
  270. Destruction of which of the following areas results in the inability to formulate sentences?
    Broca’s Area
  271. Lymphatic tissue is predominantly found where?
    Skin & Gut
  272. Which of the following is not involved in smooth muscle contraction?
    Voluntary Motor Stimulation
  273. The bodies’ primary response to rapid hemorrhage with blood loss is which of the following?
    Increased Renin Production of the JG Cells
  274. Which of the following causes edema?
    Increased Venous Pressure
  275. Proteins are absorbed across the lumen of the small intestine as ___________.
    Amino Acids
  276. Aldosterone has its greatest effect on which of the following?
    Increased Reabsorption of Filtered Na+ at the Distal Tubule
  277. Which of the following immunoglobulins crosses the placenta?
    IgG
  278. Which of the following stimulates red blood cell production?
    Erythropoieten
  279. Ca++ is released from which part of the muscle?
    Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
  280. How many parathyroid glands can be found in a healthy adult?
    4
  281. What is the action of the myenteric plexus?
    Peristalsis
  282. The brainstem does not control which of the following?
    Fine Hand Movement
  283. Where is the majority of chloride absorbed in the renal tubule?
    Proximal Convoluted Tubule
  284. Elevation of CO2 will shift the hemoglobin dislocation curve to the _______.
    Left
  285. Which of the following organs is the most powerful regulator of the acid-base balance?
    Kidney
  286. Salutatory conduction occurs in which of the following types of nerves?
    Myelinated
  287. Hyperpolarization of a nerve would result in ____________.
    Increased Resistance to Firing
  288. How does Na+ pass through the ion channel?
    Primary Active Transport
  289. Which of the following is responsible for the degeneration of the endometrium?
    Corpus Luteum Involution
  290. Preganglionic Sympathetic fibers arise from which part of the spinal cord?
    Intermedio
  291. Which of the following carries ammonia in the bloodstream?
    Glutamine
  292. Which of the following binds with the alpha-receptor on vascular smooth muscle to cause vasoconstriction?
    Norepinephrine
  293. Which of the following taste sensations detects alkaloids?
    Bitter
  294. Loss of fluid in an adult at the ambient temperature of 70 is due to which of the following?
    • Respiration
    • Urination
  295. Which of the following prevents gastric reflux?
    Physiological Sphincter Similar to the Pyloric Sphincter
  296. Which of the following laws states that at a constant pressure, a volume of gas varies directly with absolute pressure?
    Charles Law
  297. Which of the following has inspiratory & expiratory control centers?
    Medulla Oblongata
  298. Which of the following has an apneustic center & a pneumotoxic center?
    Pons
  299. Which lobe of the brain coordinates visual perception?
    Occipital Lobe
  300. Which lobe of the brain controls hearing, memory, & smell?
    Temporal Lobe
  301. Which lobe of the brain controls sensation?
    Parietal Lobe
  302. Which of the following lengthens blood-clotting time?
    Decreased Levels of Vitamin K
  303. What are the 4 stages of the Corpus Luteum?
    • Proliferation
    • Enlargement
    • Secretory
    • Degenerative
  304. When we touch a cold object, heat is lost via which of the following?
    Conduction
  305. Which of the following is most apt to produce the lowest renal filtration fraction for glucose?
    Hypoglycemia
  306. The ability of hemoglobin to absorb CO2 is reduced by increased __________.
    Oxygen
  307. When is transpulmonary respiration at maximum?
    End of Inspiration Stage
  308. Dopa is a precursor to which of the following?
    Norepinephrine
  309. Where does synthesis of ACTH occur?
    Presynaptic Terminal
  310. Which of the following stimulates the release of renin?
    Decreased Salt & Water into the Macula Densa
  311. What is the impetus for simple diffusion of an uncharged particle?
    Concentration Gradient
  312. What does the Nernst Equation predict?
    Equilibrium Potential
  313. What is required to initiate successive contractions during the relative refractory period?
    Artificial Stimulation
  314. Excess ADH will increase Osmolarity of the fluid in which of the following?
    Collecting Duct
  315. Which of the following produce the dynamic stretch response?
    Nuclear Bag Fibers
  316. Which of the following do bile salts emulsify?
    Lipids
  317. Which of the following is linked to depolarization of nerve endings & vesicular release of neurotransmitters?
    Ca++
  318. Which of the following initiates contraction of muscles in the axial skeleton?
    Corticospinal System
  319. Which of the following causes the release of ADH?
    Plasma Sodium Levels
  320. Which of the following is in Na+ channels, & initiates action potential in skeletal muscles?
    Ca++
  321. Which of the following describes loss of body heat through air?
    Convection
  322. Which of the following enzymes facilitate fertilization?
    Hyaluronidase
  323. Which of the following best stimulates peristaltic contractions?
    Intestinal Distention
  324. Which of the following is the functional unit of muscle fibers?
    Motor Unit
  325. Which of the following acts upon the hypophysis to release adrenocorticotropic hormone from the anterior pituitary gland?
    Cortisol
  326. Which of the following is a part of myofibrils & Z discs?
    Sarcomere
  327. Which of the following has a high density of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum?
    Fast Twitch Muscle Fibers
  328. Increased blood pH & increased bicarbonate in the blood causes which of the following?
    Metabolic Alkalosis
  329. Which of the following initiates the enterogastric reflex?
    Distention of the Duodenum
  330. Which of the following secrete glucagon from the pancreas?
    Alpha Cells
  331. Which of the following only occurs in myelinated nerve fibers?
    Saltatory Conduction
  332. Which of the following is actively secreted in the distal tubule of a nephron?
    Potassium
  333. Increased urination, increased appetite & hyperglycemia are most closely associated with ___________.
    Hypoinsulinism
  334. Which of the following has the lowest partial pressure of oxygen?
    Alveolus & Blood
  335. Which of the following inhibits gastrin & slows gastric motility?
    GIP
  336. Which of the following causes chief cells to produce more HCL?
Gastrin
  337. The greatest % of filtered H2O is reabsorbed in the ___________.
    Proximal Tubule
  338. Which of the following results from cranial nerve stimulation?
    Engorgement of the Corpus Spongiosum
  339. Which of the following are afferent fibers that control pupillary light reflexes?
    CN II
  340. Which of the following renal structures are most affected by Angiotension II?
    Efferent Arteriole
  341. Which of the following is present in both cascade pathways?
    C3
  342. Neurotransmitter molecules are released @ nerve cell endings due to which ion?
    Ca++
  343. Which of the following is transported in the lymphatic system?
    Chylomicrons
  344. An increase in thyroid hormone would result in which of the following?
    Increased Fat Metabolism
  345. A lower motor neuron extends from the _______ to the _______.
    Spinal Cord, Effector
  346. What is the integrated system of the spinal cord?
    Cerebral Motor Cortex Area
  347. Which of the following has the greatest amount of resistance in the periphery?
    Arterioles
  348. Which of the following substances is not a catacholamine?
    Acetylcholine
  349. What is the function of an inhibitory neurotransmitter?
    It inactivates the Na+ Channels
  350. The descending pain modular system specifically inhibits which of the following?
    Internal C Fibers in the Dorsal Horn
  351. Which of the following conditions increase the secretion of renin?
    Decreased Blood Pressure
  352. After ACH binds with its receptor, a channel opens in the endplate region that is large enough for both K+ & Na+ ions to pass through. Initially, Na+ ions move through & K+ ions don’t. What best explains this?
    K+ is @ an electrochemical Equilibrium
  353. Osmoreceptors are located in which of the following?
    Hypothalamus
  354. Which of the following carries proprioceptive fibers for sensory information from joints, tendons, muscles & ligaments?
    Ascending Spinocerebellar Tract
  355. Where do muscle tendon signals terminate?
    Post-Central Gyrus
  356. Node to node conduction best describes which of the following?
    Saltatory Conduction
  357. The sympathetics exert the least effect on which of the following?
    Capillaries
  358. Under normal circumstances which of the following substances is completely absorbed?
    Glucose
  359. Which of the following causes decreased glomerular filtration?
    Obstruction of Nephritic Tubules
  360. When there is a significant decrease in the extracellular Na+ concentration there is an increase in which of the following?
    Amplitude of Action Potential
  361. Which of the following characterizes Laminar blood flow?
    Parabolic Velocity Profile
  362. Fixed action patterns or motor programs for sucking & the vomiting reflex are controlled by centers in the ___________.
    Brainstem
  363. The adrenal medulla is analogous to which nerve(s)?
    Postganglionic Sympathetics
  364. Which chemical produces the hyperpolarization reaction in humans?
    K+
  365. Neurons, which mediate conscious control over single muscle groups, are located in the _____________.
    Cerebral Cortex
  366. At normal partial pressure of O2 in the alveoli, hemoglobin is ____ saturated?
    97%
  367. The respiratory center in the brainstem is most strongly influenced by which of the following?
    Carbon Dioxide Concentration in the Blood
  368. Which of the following detaches myosin-actin cross bridges in skeletal muscle?
    Binding of ATP to Myosin
  369. Which of the following areas receives more O2 carrying blood than is necessary for normal metabolism?
    Brain
  370. Insulin secretion decreases which of the following?
    Gluconeogenesis
  371. With a distended colon-rectum the internal sphincter is ________ & the external sphincter is __________.
    Relaxed, Constricted
  372. Where is Vitamin A stored in the body?
    Liver
  373. Which of the following laws states that anterior spinal roots are motor & posterior spinal roots are sensory?
    Bell Magende Law
  374. Which of the following laws states that at constant temperature, a volume of gas varies inversely with pressure?
    Boyle’s Law
  375. Which of the following nerve endings detect “hot”?
    Ruffini
  376. Which of the following nerve endings detect “cold”?
    Krause
  377. Which of the following nerve endings detect “touch & pressure”?
    Meissner’s
  378. Which of the following is a function of gastrin?
    Stimulation of Gastric Secretion
  379. Which of the following stimulates aldosterone?
    Angiotensin II
  380. Which of the following transforms light energy into nerve impulses?
    Retina
  381. Which of the following occurs during accommodation to near vision?
    Ciliary Muscle Contraction
  382. Which of the following results from stimulation of multiple synapses?
    Spatial Summation
  383. Which of the following is an anticoagulant?
    Heparin
  384. Which of the following causes synaptic impulses to be depleted?
    Cholinesterase
  385. Which of the following vitamins are depleted 1st in hot weather?
    B & C
  386. Which of the following is the most potent vasoconstrictor?
    Angiotensin II
  387. Which of the following are vasodilators?
    Bradykinin & Histamine
  388. Trypsinogen is a thymogen that activates which of the following?
    Pancreatic Enzymes
  389. Information from the basal ganglia is next sent to which of the following?
    Cerebellum
  390. A deficiency of which of the following will lead to cramps in the calves during pregnancy?
    Calcium
  391. A deficiency of which of the following is responsible for inhibiting production of DNA & RNA?
    Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)
  392. Which of the following maintains resting membrane potential?
    Leaking of K+ ions
  393. Which of the following will increase respiratory rate?
    Increased Body Metabolism
  394. In which area of the brain is the written word comprehended?
    Angular Gyrus
  395. Which of the following is most affected by Angiotensin II?
    Efferent Arterioles
  396. If the radius of a blood vessel is increased from 1cm to 2cm, resistance of the vessel is decreased _______.
    16X
  397. Which of the following has the largest lung volume?
    • A. Tidal Volume
    • B. Inspiratory Reserve
    • C. Expiratory Reserve
    • D. Vital Capacity
  398. Total lung capacity could be defined as which of the following?
    Vital Capacity + Residual Volume
  399. The amount of air left in the lungs after maximal forceful expiration is called what?
    Residual Volume
  400. Which of the following is the smallest respiratory volume?
    Tidal Volume
  401. During inspiration the alveolar pressure becomes _______ than the atmospheric pressure, & the intrapleural pressure becomes ______ negative.
    Less, More
  402. Which of the following initiates the Hering-Breuer reflex?
    Stretch Receptors in the Lung & Bronchioles
  403. The most difficult aspect of breathing to overcome is ___________.
    Elastic Resistance
  404. PCO2 pressure in the arterial blood is equivalent to which of the following?
    Alveolus Pressure
  405. Increased surface tension created by water affects compliance of which pulmonary structure?
    Alveoli
  406. Which of the following structures is responsible for the initiation of the heart contraction?
    SA Node
  407. Which of the following waves on the EKG depicts both ventricular depolarization & repolarization?
    QRS & T
  408. When the semilunar valve closes & just before the AV valve opens is which stage of the cardiac cycle?
    Isovolumetric Relaxation
  409. Which wave on the EKG demonstrates ventricular repolarization?
    T wave
  410. The Q wave is responsible for which of the following?
    Ventricular Depolarization
  411. The P wave on an EKG demonstrates which of the following?
    Atrial Depolarization
  412. The 1st audible sound found in diastole is which of the following?
    Closure of the Semilunar Valve
  413. Which stage of the cardiac cycle begins with the opening of the AV valves & ends with the closure of the AV valves?
    Atrial Systole
  414. Which artery supplies the SA node?
    Branches of the Right Coronary Artery
  415. The QRS complex on an EKG represents which of the following?
    Ventricular Depolarization
  416. In diastole what happens when all 4-heart valves close & ventricular pressure decreases?
    Isovolumetric relaxation
  417. The delay in the impulse in the heart is the responsibility of which of the following?
    AV Node
  418. Diastolic pressure is most affected by which of the following?
    Arteriolar Pressure
  419. Which of the following occurs during diastole?
    Rapid Filling & Atrial Systole
  420. On an EKG which of the following represents atrial repolarizion?
    It is Hidden by the QRS wave
  421. At which point in the cardiac cycle does the coronary artery supply blood to the ventricles?
    Diastole
  422. The plateau of the cardiac action is due to which of the following?
    Slow Calcium Channels
  423. During repolarization of an action potential which of the following will exit?
    Potassium
  424. Which of the following enhances permeability to increase heart conduction?
    Gap Junctions
  425. The absolute refractory period is responsible for which of the following?
    Prevents Tetany
  426. Which type of transmembrane reaction mediates the action of norepinephrine on the SA Node?
    Ca++
  427. A wide, tall, bizarre QRS wave indicates which of the following?
    Premature Ventricular Contraction
  428. Which of the following controls the automatic rhythm of the heart?
    SA Node
  429. Which of the following allows impulses of the heart to be functionally in syncytium?
    Intercalated Disc
  430. What does the S1 sound represent?
    Closure of the AV Valve
  431. What is the purpose of the AV node in the heart?
    Delays Impulses to the Heart
  432. What is the location of the AV node?
    Within the Right Atrium, Posterior to the Tricuspid Valve
  433. Which of the following has a shorter refractory period?
    Atrium
  434. Which sound is heard @ the 5th intercostal space?
    Mitral Valve
  435. The location of the tricuspid valve is between the ______ atrium & ________ ventricle.
    Right, Right
  436. At what time during the cardiac cycle does ventricular pressure increase to 80mmHg?
    Ejection
  437. In going from rest to exercise, which of the following is least likely to increase?
    Stroke Volume
  438. Stroke volume x heart rate = __________.
    Cardiac Output
  439. The difference between cardiac action potential (-90) & skeletal muscle action potential (-70) is which of the following?
    More K+ in the resting membrane
  440. The interval between sinoatrial stimulation & ventricular depolarization is the ___ interval.
    PQ
  441. The action of norepinephrine on the SA node is mediated by a transmembrane ____ reaction.
    Ca++
  442. The PO2 is greater in the pulmonary veins than the O2 pressure of which of the following?
    Left Atrium
  443. Stimulation of barrow receptors causes which of the following?
    Increased Vagal Stimulation of the Heart
  444. The greatest delay in the transmission of the cardiac cycle is where?
    AV Node
  445. Which law states that cardiac output is directly proportional to diastolic filling?
    Starling’s Law
  446. Cardiac output & peripheral resistance most directly affects which of the following?
    Arterial Blood Pressure
  447. Which of the following is responsible for contraction according to Starling’s Law?
    Venous Return
  448. What is the 1st audible sound in diastole?
    Closure of the Semilunar Valve
  449. Which of the following is known as the pacemaker of the heart?
    SA Node
  450. Which of the following must occur to result in an increased cardiac output?
    Increased Venous Return
  451. Which of the following occurs during diastole?
    Rapid Filling & Atrial Systole
  452. What directly relates to the aortic valve closing?
    Aortic Pressure is Greater than Left Ventricular Pressure
  453. The carotid sinus reflex results in which of the following?
    Decreased Heart Rate
  454. The 1st heart sound occurs approximately at the same time as which of the following?
    QRS Complex
  455. Diastolic pressure is most affected by which of the following?
    Arteriolar Pressure
  456. Cardiac output & peripheral resistance most directly affects which of the following?
    Arterial Blood Pressure
  457. Which of the following arteries supplies the SA node?
    Right Coronary Artery
  458. Which stage of the cardiac cycle begins with the opening of the AV valve & ends with the closure of the AV valves?
    Ventricular Diastole
  459. Which hormone predominates in sympathetic activity?
    Noradrenalin
  460. In a female who is breast feeding which of the following is necessary for milk production?
    Prolactin
  461. Which of the following hormones has its major effect on the collecting duct?
    ADH
  462. Which hormone is dominant during the 1st trimester of pregnancy?
    Human Chorionic Gonadotropic Hormone (HCG)
  463. When there is an increase in blood sugar, which of the following hormones is responsible for decreasing blood sugar levels?
    Insulin
  464. Which of the following substances is produced in the zonaglomerules?
    Aldosterone
  465. Which of the following is secreted during the follicular stage of the menstrual cycle?
    Estadiol
  466. Which of the following hormones stimulates milk let down?
    Oxytocin
  467. The hypothalamus produces which hormone that stimulates the anterior pituitary gland?
    Growth Hormone Releasing Factor
  468. Which of the following hormones stimulates the adrenal gland?
    ACTH
  469. Which of the following hormones stimulates the thyroid?
    TSH
  470. Which of the following hormones stimulates sperm production in males?
    FSH
  471. Which of the following hormones stimulates follicles in preparation for ovulation in females?
    FSH
  472. Which of the following is responsible for absorption of Ca++ from the intestines, excretion of phosphorous in the kidneys, & release of CA++ from the bones?
    Parathyroid Hormone
  473. The corpus luteum is responsible for production of which of the following?
    Estrogen & Progesterone
  474. Which of the following hormones is necessary for ovulation?
    LH
  475. Which of the following hormones is necessary for spermatogenesis?
    FSH
  476. Which of the following hormones is secreted by the beta cells in response to glucose?
    Insulin
  477. Which of the following hormones is secreted by the parathyroid gland?
    Parathormone
  478. Which of the following inhibits fat breakdown?
    Insulin
  479. The anterior pituitary gland produces which of the following?
    TSH
  480. Which of the following hormones is responsible for decreased calcium in the blood stream?
    Calcitonin
  481. Which of the following substances stimulates aldosterone?
    Angiotension II
  482. Which of the following hormones stimulates milk production post partum?
    Prolactin
  483. Which of the following hormones stimulates uterine contractions during labor & after birth?
    Oxytocin
  484. Which of the following hormones is responsible for ovulation?
    LH
  485. The interstitial cells of leydig produce which of the following?
    Testosterone
  486. What is the purpose of LH in males?
    Stimulation of the Interstitial Cells of leydig
  487. Which of the following does not have a role in regulating blood sugar?
    Luteinizing Hormone
  488. Which of the following hormones is responsible for contraction of the gallbladder?
    Cholecystokinin
  489. Which of the following do ovarian follicles produce after stimulation by FSH?
    Estrogen
  490. Which of the following hormones will cause an increase in the amount of K+ in the urine?
    Aldosterone
  491. Which of the following hormones stimulates the secondary sex characteristics?
    Estrogen
  492. Which of the following thickens the lining of the uterus in the Proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle?
    Estrogen
  493. Which hormone is under the control of both inhibitory & releasing hormones of the hypothalamus?
    Growth Hormone
  494. From which of the following structures is LH derived?
    Anterior Pituitary
  495. Which of the following is responsible for the formation of the Corpus Luteum?
    LH
  496. Which of the following do interstitial cells of leydig in the testes produce?
    Testosterone
  497. The sucking reflex stimulated the release of which of the following from the posterior pituitary?
    Oxytocin
  498. Which of the following stimulates testosterone production?
    LH
  499. Which of the following is a major thyroid hormone that regulates the metabolism?
    Thyroxine
  500. Which of the following is the pituitary hormone involved in the secretory phase of menstruation?
    LH
  501. Testosterone is produced & secreted by the _____________.
    Interstitial Cells of Leydig
  502. Which of the following hormones is released during long-term stress?
    Cortisol
  503. Which of the following hormones stimulate sperm production?
    FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
  504. Which of the following hormones causes reabsorption of Na+ from the distal convoluted tubules?
    Aldosterone
  505. Which of the following is a female hormone secreted by the corpus luteum?
    Progesterone
  506. Dehydration causes an increase in which of the following?
Antidiuretic Hormone
  507. Which of the following promotes absorption of insulin?
    Chromium
  508. When is the greatest amount of Prolactin secreted?
    During Delivery
  509. Which of the following stimulates flow of pancreatic juice & decreases gastric motility?
    Secretin
  510. Which of the following chemically stimulates fatty acid synthesis?
    Insulin
  511. Which hormone is responsible for Glycogenolysis in the liver?
    Glucagon
  512. Which of the following substances produced in the duodenal & proximal jejunal mucosa stimulates the contraction of the gall bladder?
    Cholecystokinin
  513. Which of the following causes contraction of the Gallbladder?
    Cholecystokinin
  514. The Zona Glomerulosa is responsible for production of which of the following?
    Aldosterone
  515. Which of the following takes calcium out of the bone & into the blood stream?
    Parathormone
  516. A decrease in which of the following will produce tetani or muscle twitches?
    Parathormone
  517. Which of the following is a mineral-corticoid that reduces sodium excretion by the kidneys & increases potassium excretion?
    Aldosterone
  518. Which of the following conditions causes mental retardation during the 1st year?
    Lack of Thyroid Hormone
  519. After implantation, the placenta produces which of the following?
    HCG Hormone

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