CH 7 Behavioral Views of Learning

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keahi702
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265172
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CH 7 Behavioral Views of Learning
Updated:
2014-03-05 14:03:29
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Chapter educational psychology psy 307
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PSY 307
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CH 7 midterm review
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  1. Understanding Learning (p. 246-248)

    What is Learning?
    Learning occurs when experience causes a change in a person's knowledge or behavior.

    Role of environmental stimuli in learning and focuses on behavior--observable responses

    behavioral learning includes contiguity learning, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning
  2. Early Expectations of Learning: Contiguity and Classical Conditioning (p.248-250)

    How does a neutral stimulus become a conditioned stimulus?
    Classical Conditioning (Pavlov): neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that evokes a response.  Later, previous neutral stimulus now evoke response by itself.
  3. Early Expectations of Learning: Contiguity and Classical Conditioning (p.248-250)

    What are some everyday examples of classical conditioning?
    • Salivating when you smell your favorite foods
    • Tension when you hear the dentist's drill
    • Nervousness when you step on stage
  4. Operant Conditioning: Trying New Responses (p. 250-256)

    What defines a consequence as a reinforce?  As a punisher?
    (Skinner) Operant conditioning=Learn through effects of deliberate responses. 

    Effects of consequences may serve as a reinforce or punisher. 

    • Reinforcer=strengthens response
    • Punisher=diminishes response
  5. Operant Conditioning: Trying New Responses (p. 250-256)

    Negative reinforcement is often confused with punishment.  How are they different?
    Timmy screams when he doesn't want carrots so carrots get taken away.

    Different from punishment.  Punishment diminishes negative behavior.  Negative reinforcement strengthens negative behavior
  6. Operant Conditioning: Trying New Responses (p. 250-256)

    How can you encourage persistence in a behavior?
    Ratio schedules encourages higher rates of response

    Variable schedules encourage persistence of responses
  7. Operant Conditioning: Trying New Responses (p. 250-256)

    What is the difference between a cue and a prompt?
    Cue=antecedent stimulus just before behavior

    Prompt=additional cue following the first cue

    Cues should have right before prompt.  Start to let prompt fade so students aren't dependent on prompt
  8. Applied Behavior Analysis (p. 256-262)

    What are the steps in applied behavior analysis?
    1) clearly specify behavior to be changed and current level

    2) plan a specific intervention using antecedents, consequences, or both

    3) keep track of the results, and modify the plan if necessary
  9. Applied Behavior Analysis (p. 256-262)

    How can Premack principle help you identify reinforcers?
    Premack principle states high-frequency behavior (preferred activity) can be an effective reinforcer for a low frequency behavior (less-preferred activity).
  10. Applied Behavior Analysis (p. 256-262)

    When is shaping an appropriate approach?
    Shaping helps students develop new responses a little at a time.  Useful in building complex skills, working toward difficult goals, increasing persistence, endurance, accuracy, speed. 

    Time consuming though, so use cue's when possible.
  11. Applied Behavior Analysis (p. 256-262)

    What are some cautions in using punishment?
    • Two pronged attack. 
    • 1) carry out punishment and diminish behavior
    • 2) Make clear what student should be doing and provide reinforcement
  12. Putting it All Together: Behavioral Approaches to Teaching and Management (p. 262-271)

    Describe the managerial strategies of group consequences, contingency contracts, and token programs.
    Group consequences=based on behavior of whole class

    Contingency contract=individual contracts with each student describing what must happen

    Token programs=earn tokens, stars, bucks, etc for positive behavior and academic work
  13. Putting it All Together: Behavioral Approaches to Teaching and Management (p. 262-271)

    How can functional behavioral assessment and positive behavior supports be used to improve student behaviors?
    Functional behavioral assessment=use antecedents and consequences of problem behaviors to determine reason or function of behavior

    Positive behavior supports=designed to replace problem behaviors with new actions that serve same purpose
  14. Putting it All Together: Behavioral Approaches to Teaching and Management (p. 262-271)

    What are steps in self-management?
    Apply behavior analysis on their own to manage own behavior. 

    Allows kids to set goals, keep track of progress, evaluate accomplishments, and select own reinforcers
  15. Challenges, Cautions, and Criticisms (p. 271-275)

    What was Bandura's challenge to behavioral learning?
    Traditional view of learning had many limitations. 

    Argued in favor of observational learning=no responses or reinforcements during the process of learning
  16. Challenges, Cautions, and Criticisms (p. 271-275)

    Distinguish between enactive and vicarious (observational) learning
    Enactive=learning by doing and experience the consequences of your actions

    Vicarious=learn by observing (requires cognitive factors)  seeing another person model and receive reinforcements can directly affect own behavior

    Social cognitive theory expanded social learning theory to include cognitive factors such as beliefs, expectations, and perceptions of self.
  17. Challenges, Cautions, and Criticisms (p. 271-275)

    Distinguish between learning and performance
    We all know more than we show

    Learn but don't perform until situation and incentives are right
  18. Challenges, Cautions, and Criticisms (p. 271-275)

    What are the main criticisms of behavioral approaches?
    Misuse or abuse of behavioral learning methods is unethical.

    Danger that reinforcement could decrease interest in learning by overemphasizing rewards and could have a negative impact on students
  19. Challenges, Cautions, and Criticisms (p. 271-275)

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