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3 types of social influence
Types of social influence) conformity:
Spontaneously changing one's beliefs, attitudes, or behavior in ways that are consistent with perceived social norms
Types of social influence) Compliance
Enacting a behavior in response to a direct request by another person to do so
Types of social influence) Obedience
Enacting a behavior in response to a direct order by another person to do soq
2 interesting facts about conformity
- -in our culture there are conformity extremes that occur
- *slang, fashion trends, and social norms
-research on conformity was strongly prompted by the Holocaust
Why do people conform?
- Informational social influence
- *occurs in ambiguous situations
- *believes that consensus= correctness
What is informational social influence?
The influence of other people that leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior
Primary and conclusion results for sherif experiment
-participants when alone had varied results from other people
-in the end, after several trials of being paired together with other people, their scores reached a common estimate
Informational social influence is most likely to occur when...(5)
-situation is ambiguous
-other people are experts
-need to act now
-need to be correct
- -crisis situation
What is contagion?
The rapid transmission of emotions or behaviors through a crowd
CAn we resist conformity?
It is possible to resist undue informational influence
What 2 ways can we resist conformity?
-consider whether or not others' view of a situation is any more legitimate than your own
-look to other potential sources of information
***remember that you may be serving as a potential model fro other's behavior so act responsibly
People conform) normative social influence?
Conforming to be liked or accepted
WHat would people conform to under normative social influence?
People would conform to a groups' social norms
People conform) what is the social impact theory?
Social influence depends on group size, groups is important, or if group is unanimous
How does culture influence conformity? (2)
-individualist conform less than collectivist cultures
-conformity does not have a negative connotation in collectivist cultures
Is there strong evidence to suggest that self esteem plays a role in conformity?
How does gender play a role in conformity?
- -females seem more likely to conform possibly due to social roles
- *difference is very small though
Resisting normative influence) 2 ways that we can resist normative influence
-become aware that we are conforming which will lead to us questioning one's actions
-final an ally to then create a vocal minority
Resisting normative influence) reactance:
A motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom that is activated when our freedom is threatened
3 things that can occur is we don't conform
Public conformity vs private acceptance
- If a person conforms to norms, that does not necessarily mean that they do privately accept these norms
- *some are influence by groups whether it is informational influence or normative influence.
- Obeying internalized social norms without deliberating about their actions
- *saying hello on the phone
What is an advantage to mindless conformity? (2)
-It helps us get through the day
-in most cases it leads to appropriate behavior
What can be a disadvantage regarding mindless conformity?
-sometimes we end up following the wrong social norm and behaving inappropriately
In the Langer experiment, using which word in a phrase elicited a higher compliance rating?
When the phrase contained because
What are the 6 underlying principles of compliance
(compliance) what is the door in the face technique?
Gets people to comply with a. request by presenting them first with a large request and then with a smaller, more reasonable request.
*would you give a 100 dollars donation, how about a 10 dollar
(compliance) foot in the door technique: (2)
- Gets people to comply with a small, easy request, followed by a larger request
- *this is better for a long term compliance
-its all about consistency
(compliance) low-ball technique:
Person agrees to small reasonable request, then requester reveals that increased costs are involved
(compliance) deadline technique
Target told that they only have a limited time to take advantage of an offer
An unusual request is made that disrupts automatic thinking and captures person's attention
Power and compliance) relationship between these 2 factors
We often comply when we perceive others as having more power than us
(bases of social power) rewards
Power based on providing or promising a positive outcome
(bases of social power) coercion
Power based on providing or promising a negative outcome
(bases of social power) expertise
Power based on special knowledge or ability
(bases of social power) information
Power based on controlling available information
(bases of social power) referent
Power based on associations with others who have power
(bases of social power) legitimate
Power based on the influencers right or authority to make a request
What does philosopher Hannah Arendt think about the atrocities of the holocaust?
The participants were not psychopaths rather they were ordinary people that were bowing to extraordinary social pressures
4 reasons why people conformed to administer the shocks into he kilogram experiemnt
-belief that authority is truly responsible
-social norms about obeying legitimate authority
-situation moves quickly
4 ways to resist destructive obedience
-provide sense of personal responsibility
-knowing about blind obedience