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2014-03-05 13:26:43
Social Psychology

SOcial influence
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  1. 3 types of social influence


  2. Types of social influence) conformity:
    Spontaneously changing one's beliefs, attitudes, or behavior in ways that are consistent with perceived social norms
  3. Types of social influence) Compliance
    Enacting a behavior in response to a direct request by another person to do so
  4. Types of social influence) Obedience
    Enacting a behavior in response to a direct order by another person to do soq
  5. 2 interesting facts about conformity
    • -in our culture there are conformity extremes that occur
    • *slang, fashion trends, and social norms

    -research on conformity was strongly prompted by the Holocaust
  6. Why do people conform?
    • Informational social influence
    • *occurs in ambiguous situations
    • *believes that consensus= correctness
  7. What is informational social influence?
    The influence of other people that leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior
  8. Primary and conclusion results for sherif experiment
    -participants when alone had varied results from other people

    -in the end, after several trials of being paired together with other people, their scores reached a common estimate
  9. Informational social influence is most likely to occur when...(5)
    -situation is ambiguous

    -other people are experts

    -need to act now

    -need to be correct

    • -crisis situation
    • *contagion
  10. What is contagion?
    The rapid transmission of emotions or behaviors through a crowd
  11. CAn we resist conformity?
    It is possible to resist undue informational influence
  12. What 2 ways can we resist conformity?
    -consider whether or not others' view of a situation is any more legitimate than your own

    -look to other potential sources of  information

    ***remember that you may be serving as a potential model fro other's behavior so act responsibly
  13. People conform) normative social influence?
    Conforming to be liked or accepted
  14. WHat would people conform to under normative social influence?
    People would conform to a groups' social norms
  15. People conform) what is the social impact theory?
    Social influence depends on group size, groups is important, or if group is unanimous
  16. How does culture influence conformity? (2)
    -individualist conform less than collectivist cultures

    -conformity does not have a negative connotation in collectivist cultures
  17. Is there strong evidence to suggest that self esteem plays a role in conformity?
    Weak evidence
  18. How does gender play a role in conformity?
    • -females seem more likely to conform possibly due to social roles
    • *difference is very small though
  19. Resisting normative influence) 2 ways that we can resist normative influence
    -become aware that we are conforming which will lead to us questioning one's actions

    -final an ally to then create a vocal minority
  20. Resisting normative influence) reactance:
    A motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom that is activated when our freedom is threatened
  21. 3 things that can occur is we don't conform
    -look foolish


    -psychological arousal
  22. Public conformity vs private acceptance
    • If a person conforms to norms, that does not necessarily mean that they do privately accept these norms
    • *some are influence by groups whether it is informational influence or normative influence.
  23. Mindless conformity:
    • Obeying internalized social norms without deliberating about their actions
    • *saying hello on the phone
  24. What is an advantage to mindless conformity? (2)
    -It helps us get through the day

    -in most cases it leads to appropriate behavior
  25. What can be a disadvantage regarding mindless conformity?
    -sometimes we end up following the wrong social norm and behaving inappropriately
  26. In the Langer experiment, using which word in a phrase elicited a higher compliance rating?
    When the phrase contained because
  27. What are the 6 underlying principles of compliance




    -social validation

  28. (compliance) what is the door in the face technique?
    Gets people to comply with a. request by presenting them first with a large request and then with a  smaller, more reasonable request.

    *would you give a 100 dollars donation, how about a 10 dollar
  29. (compliance) foot in the door technique: (2)
    • Gets people to comply with a small, easy request, followed by a larger request
    • *this is better for a long term compliance

    -its all about consistency
  30. (compliance) low-ball technique:
    Person agrees to small reasonable request, then requester reveals that increased costs are involved
  31. (compliance) deadline technique
    Target told that they only have a limited time to take advantage of an offer
  32. (compliance) pique:
    An unusual request is made that disrupts automatic thinking and captures person's attention
  33. Power and compliance) relationship between these 2 factors
    We often comply when we perceive others as having more power than us
  34. (bases of social power) rewards
    Power based on providing or promising a positive outcome
  35. (bases of social power) coercion
    Power based on providing or promising a negative outcome
  36. (bases of social power) expertise
    Power based on special knowledge or ability
  37. (bases of social power) information
    Power based on controlling available information
  38. (bases of social power) referent
    Power based on associations with others who have power
  39. (bases of social power) legitimate
    Power based on the influencers right or authority to make a request
  40. What does philosopher Hannah Arendt think about the atrocities of the holocaust?
    The participants were not psychopaths rather they were ordinary people that were bowing to extraordinary social pressures
  41. 4 reasons why people conformed to administer the shocks into he kilogram experiemnt
    -belief that authority is truly responsible

    -social norms about obeying legitimate authority

    -gradual escalation

    -situation moves quickly
  42. 4 ways to resist destructive obedience
    -provide sense of personal responsibility

    -disobedient models

    -question authority

    -knowing about blind obedience