Protein synthesis

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  1. What happens during stage 1 of the transcription phase?
    • DNA in the gene unwinds
    • Hydrogen bonds are broken down by helicase enzyme exposing the bases
  2. What happens during stage 2 of the transcription phase?
    Complementary RNA nucleotides join to exposed bases with hydrogen bonds
  3. What happens during stage 4 of the transcription phase?
    • RNA polymerase joins free nucleotides together with a phosphodiester bond between sugar and phosphate 
    • This forms a single strand of pre mRNA
  4. What happens during stage 5 of the transcription phase?
    The pre mRNA diffuses out of the nucleus through a nuclear pore
  5. What is an intron?
    A section of DNA that does not code for amino acids
  6. What happens during the splicing phase?
    • The introns are removed from the pre mRNA
    • The remaining axons are spliced together to from mRNA
  7. What happens during stage 1 of the translation phase?
    The mRNA attaches to a ribosome in the cytoplasm
  8. What happens during stage 2 of the translation phase?
    • Transfer RNA (tRNA) carries a specific amino acid
    • tRNA has a sequence of 3 bases (the anticodon)
    • The tNRA anticodon binds to a complementary sequence of the bases (the codon) on the mRNA
  9. What happens during stage 3 of the translation phase?
    An enzyme in the ribosome binds the amino acids together with a peptide bond
  10. State 5 features of tRNA
    • Contains ribose sugar 
    • Clover leaf shape
    • Contains uracil
    • Single stranded
    • Hydrogen bonds between bases
  11. State 5 features of mRNA
    • Contains ribulose sugar
    • Linear
    • Contains uracil
    • Single stranded 
    • No hydrogen bonds between bases
  12. State 5 features of DNA
    • Contains deoxyribose sugar
    • Helical
    • Contains thymine 
    • Double stranded
    • Hydrogen bonds between bases
Card Set
Protein synthesis
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