A&P Chapter 4

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A&P Chapter 4
2009-12-09 15:47:05
Anatomy and Physiology

Tissue: the fabric of life
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  1. What are the four primary tissue types?
    • Epithelial: covering
    • Connective: support
    • Muscle: movement
    • Nervous: Control
  2. What is the role of epithelium?
    • Protection
    • absorption
    • filtration
    • excretion
    • secretion
    • sensory reception
  3. What are the five special characteristics of epithelial tissue?
    • Polarity
    • Specialized contacts
    • Supported by connective tissue
    • avascular but innervated
    • Regneration
  4. How is epithelial tissue classified?
    • Number of layers: simple or stratified
    • Shape of the cell: Squamous, cuboidal, columnar
  5. Endothelium
    provides a slick, friction reducing lining in lymphatic vessels and in all hollow organs of the cardiovascular system - blood vessels and heart.
  6. Mesothelium
    epithelium found in serous membranes lining the ventral body cavity and covering its organs.
  7. Gland
    • consists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product.
    • Classified as endocrine or exocrine
  8. Types of exocrine glands
    • Merocrine: most common; secrete their products by exocytosis
    • holocrine: accumulate their product until they rupture
    • apocrine: controversy regarding if there are any in humans.
  9. tensile strength
    Ability to resist longitudinal stress
  10. Primary blast cell types by connective tissue class
    • Connective tissue proper: fibroblast
    • cartilage: chondroblast
    • bone: osteoblast
  11. Mast cells
    sensitive sentinels that detect foreign microorganisms
  12. Macrophages
    Large, irregularly shaped cells that avidly phagocytize a road variety of foreign materials
  13. Mesenchyme
    • derived from embryonic mesoderm
    • the common embryonic tissue that connective tissue arise from
  14. Edema
    Affected area swells and becomes puffy, a condition caused by an inflamed areolar issue that soaks up excess fluids like a sponge.
  15. Cartilage
    • lacks nerve fiber
    • avascular
  16. Muscle tissue
    • highly cellular
    • Well vascularized
  17. What are the differences between an inflammatory response and immune response?
    • Inflammatory response: relatively nonspecific reaction that develops quickly where ever tissues are injured
    • Immune response: extremely specific, but takes longer to swing into action.
  18. Steps of tissue repair
    • 1. Inflammation sets the stage: severed blood vessels bleed; local blood vessels become more permeable; clotting occurs; surface dries and forms a scab
    • 2. Organization (1st phase of tissue repair) restores the blood supply: clot is replaced by granulation tissue, which restores the vascular supply; fibroblasts produce collagen fibers that bridge the gap; macrophages phagocytize cell debris
    • 3. Regeneration and fibrosis effect permanent repair: the fibrosed area matures and contracts; the epithelium thickens; a fully regenerated epithelium with an underlying area of scar tissue results.
  19. Regenerative capabilities of nerve tissue, regular connective tissue, Smooth and Cardiac muscle
    • Smooth muscle and dense regular connective tissue have a moderate capacity for regeneration
    • Skeletal muscle and cartilage have a weak regenerative capacity

    Cardiac muscle and the nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord have virtually no functional regenerative capacity.