A&P Chapter 4
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What are the four primary tissue types?
- Epithelial: covering
- Connective: support
- Muscle: movement
- Nervous: Control
What is the role of epithelium?
- sensory reception
What are the five special characteristics of epithelial tissue?
- Specialized contacts
- Supported by connective tissue
- avascular but innervated
How is epithelial tissue classified?
- Number of layers: simple or stratified
- Shape of the cell: Squamous, cuboidal, columnar
provides a slick, friction reducing lining in lymphatic vessels and in all hollow organs of the cardiovascular system - blood vessels and heart.
epithelium found in serous membranes lining the ventral body cavity and covering its organs.
- consists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product.
- Classified as endocrine or exocrine
Types of exocrine glands
- Merocrine: most common; secrete their products by exocytosis
- holocrine: accumulate their product until they rupture
- apocrine: controversy regarding if there are any in humans.
Ability to resist longitudinal stress
Primary blast cell types by connective tissue class
- Connective tissue proper: fibroblast
- cartilage: chondroblast
- bone: osteoblast
sensitive sentinels that detect foreign microorganisms
Large, irregularly shaped cells that avidly phagocytize a road variety of foreign materials
- derived from embryonic mesoderm
- the common embryonic tissue that connective tissue arise from
Affected area swells and becomes puffy, a condition caused by an inflamed areolar issue that soaks up excess fluids like a sponge.
- lacks nerve fiber
- highly cellular
- Well vascularized
What are the differences between an inflammatory response and immune response?
- Inflammatory response: relatively nonspecific reaction that develops quickly where ever tissues are injured
- Immune response: extremely specific, but takes longer to swing into action.
Steps of tissue repair
- 1. Inflammation sets the stage: severed blood vessels bleed; local blood vessels become more permeable; clotting occurs; surface dries and forms a scab
- 2. Organization (1st phase of tissue repair) restores the blood supply: clot is replaced by granulation tissue, which restores the vascular supply; fibroblasts produce collagen fibers that bridge the gap; macrophages phagocytize cell debris
- 3. Regeneration and fibrosis effect permanent repair: the fibrosed area matures and contracts; the epithelium thickens; a fully regenerated epithelium with an underlying area of scar tissue results.
Regenerative capabilities of nerve tissue, regular connective tissue, Smooth and Cardiac muscle
- Smooth muscle and dense regular connective tissue have a moderate capacity for regeneration
- Skeletal muscle and cartilage have a weak regenerative capacity
Cardiac muscle and the nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord have virtually no functional regenerative capacity.
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