CH4 ntd 303
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CH4 ntd 303
NTD303 ch4 powerpoint
ch4 powerpoint and notes
compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen arranged as monosaccharides
brains preferred source of energy?
sources of carbs?
muscles use what for energy?
simple sugar units
3 main monosaccharides?
found in lactose in milk
major monosaccharide in the body also known as dextrose
what is glucose called in the bloodstream
glucose is a source of ?
fuel for cells
glucose breaks down
starches and sucrose
fructose is in
where can fructose be found?
high fructose corn syrup
what happens to fructose in the liver?
it is converted into glucose
the sweetest of sugars?
galactose is found in?
lactose, which is a dissacharide
where is galactose coverted?
in the liver to glucose
what food is galactose found in?
milk and milk products
disaccharides are composed of?
formed when 2 monosaccharides combine
sucrose? what does it make?
glucose + fructose
lactose? what does it make ?
galactose + glucose
maltose? what does it make?
glucose + glucose
fermentation, alcohol production
links 2 monosaccharides together and a water molecule is formed
breaks disaccharides into two monosaccharides. a water molecule is split to form the two monosaccharides
more than 2 glucose units together
3 complex carbs that are important to nutrition?
storage form of glucose for animals and humans
manufactured and stored in the liver, and to a lesser extent muscles
glycogen is highly branched chains of
straight chain form of starch glucose
branch chain of starch glucose
we do not ____ glycogen
easier to break down than amylase
what are the richest source of starch?
what supplies most of the energy people require each day?
undigested starch aka roughage
bonds between monosaccarides in ___ ___ cannot be broken down by human digestive enzymes
2 major fibers?
4 categories of water soluble fibers?
these water soluble fibers are added to food as stabilizers
this water soluble fibers are found in breads and fruits; form gels in water; used as thickener in food products
this water soluble fiber is found in legumes and cereal fiber, barley and oats
3 categories of water insoluble fiber
this water insoluble fiber is found in cereal fiber, wheat
this water insoluble fiber occurs in fruits, vegetables and legumes
this water insoluble fiber is the woody part of carrots and in the small seeds of fruits
____ ____ is fast moving and gives you diarrhea
insoluble fiber of apple? soluble fiber in apple?
___ ___ is very slow moving
___ forms bad cholesterol
___ ___ moves fiber out of the body
soluble and insoluble fiber both ?
slow starch breakdown
delay glucose absorption in the blood
fermented by microorganisms in the digestive tract
___ ___ captures water like a sponge and causes swelling and increases intestinal bulk and fecal weight
____ ___ has the ability to bind minerals
___ ___ has capacity to form gel like solutions
____ ____ has bile binding capacity, excrete cholesterol, lowers blood cholesterol
carb digestion begins in the ____ with ___ ____
carb digestion ____ in the stomach because stomach acid and enzymes inactivate salivary amylase
ultimate goal for carb digestion?
glucose for absorption and use
most carb digestion occurs in the ?
3 specific dissaharide enzymes in carb digestion?
breaks maltose into glucose and glucose
breaks sucrose into glucose and fructose
breaks lactose into glucose and galactose
in carb absorption ___ and ____ are transported directly into the bloodstream
active transport in carb absorption?
facilitated diffusion in carb absorption ?
what happens in the liver during carb absorption?
conversion of fructose and galactose
end of carb digestion?
____ and ____ are metabolized in the liver, where as ____ is immediately sent to the body cells for energy
3 possible destinations of glucose?
glucose gets used for energy if needed
glucose gets packaged into glycogen and stored in the liver or the muscle cells
glucose gets converted to fat and stored in the body as fat cells
lactase activity is highest?
immediately after birth
declines with age
T OR F a milk allergy is different from lactose intolerance
with a lactose intolerance, what are the potential nutrient deficiencies
___ of glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and ___ of glucose is stored as glycogen in the muscles
short term energy supply that includes less than 1 day at rest and up to a few hours exercise
___ supplies us with long term energy
glucose is a key player in
when glycogen needs to be released from the liver what does it use?
fuels most of body's cels
preferred source for brain, nerve cells and developing red blood cells
the making of glucose from body proteins
lowers blood glucose
raises blood glucose
T OR F the body is only able to store so much glycogen, but the body can store an unlimited number of fats
blood becomes acidic
glucose makes fat when it is?
brings glucose out from storage
glucagon and epinephrine
intestines have a steady supply of what in the blood stream?
liver has a steady supply of what in the blood stream?
responsible for secreating glucagon
main goal in glucose homeostasis?
to move glucose from the blood into the cells
type 1 diabetes?
the pancreas fails to produce insulin
type 2 diabetes?
the cells fail to respond to insulin
insulin is either inadequate of ineffective
speed of glucose absorption, level of blood glucose and return to normal glucose levels
a low glycemic response is?
bacteria ferment sugars producing acid
health effects of sugars?
WHO and FAO recommend what percentage of calories to come from sugar?
the dietary guidelines say to choose and prepare foods with little?
an herbal product GRAS
stevia (artificial sweetener)
health effects of starch and fibers on heart disease?
improves risk factors through whole grains and soluble fibers
health effects of starch and fibers on diabetes?
high fiber foods recommended
what is recommended for GI health/
high fiber foods
what is good source of food for weight management?
high fiber foods and whole grains make you feel full
problems from excessive fiber?
less than ___ of fiber per day can compromise mineral balance
DRI for fiber?
25-30 grams per day
AMDR for carbs is?
45%-65% of total calories per day
1 oz of ___ provides about 15g of carbs
"three are key" message?
choose 1 whole grain at each meal
meat and meat alternatives have?
protein foods that have carbs?