Biol 2

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Author:
napoleon
ID:
26526
Filename:
Biol 2
Updated:
2010-07-15 16:35:34
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Biol
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Biol Class 2
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  1. SECRETORY PATHWAYS:
  2. cytoskeleton prot:
    microfilaments-
    • ACTIN = active polymerizes
    • (dimerize quickly, rolling motion)
    • (~amoebas)
  3. cytoskeleton prot:
    intermediate -
    • KERATIN (hair)
    • stacked & stayed that way
  4. cytoskeleton prot:
    microtubules -
    • dimer (α/β) (active polymol in big chain) GTP
    • big hallow tube
    • 9+2 = 20 microtubules
    • *imp in mitosis

  5. CELL JUNCTIONS:
    tight junctions =
    • Gut
  6. Cell junct:
    gap junctions =
    • cardiac cells (proteinase bridge)
  7. cell junct:
    desmosomes =
    spot wells (holds together)
  8. PLASMA MEMB:
    size & charge
  9. Signaling:
    signal -
    chemistry will dicate the signal

    • 2 TYPES RESPONSES
    • extracellular
    • intracellular
  10. extracellular:
    things that does NOT cross memb

    ex -> insulin = bind to receptor
  11. intracellular:
    that can pass through recept inside cell

    ex -> steriod/TH (thyroid)
  12. Transduction:
    (1 insulin recept, transmit of signal through cell)

    • --> conduction & amplifications of signal
    • ==> G- proteins
  13. G - Proteins
    • facilitative diff --> go against gradient
    • 2o active transport; protein helps
  14. Transmemb transport:
    pump -
    • (have to have) NRG
    • 1o active transport
    • Na/K ATPase = 3 Na (OUT)/ 2 K (IN)
  15. Transmemb transport:
    channel -
    specific for ions (smaller); passive (no NRG use; go down concent grad)

    K+/ Na+/ Cl- DIFFUSION

    • carrier
  16. TONICITY:
    Osmolarity

    omosis: H2O diffusion across semi-permable memb

  17. 3 types of osmolarity:
    hypertonic: crenation

    • hypotonic: water in
    • [RBC (in H2O)→ H2O go into cell; H2O dilute what there plant cell = TURGID]

    Isotonic:
  18. CELL CYCLE:

    Mitosis -
    • MITOSIS → 1 cell → 2 cells (identical)
    • 2n (diploid) → 2n (2x)
  19. Phases of mitosis:
    PROPHASE = (1) condense chromosome (2) dissolve nucleus

    • METAPHASE = line-up in middle; kinetochore w/ microtub
    • "middle"

    ANAPHASE = separate & move to centrioles

    • | TELOPHASE = reform our nucleus
    • | CYTOKINESIS = final separation
  20. [probs that can happen]
    NONDYSJUNCTION:
    = part or whole of chromo

    • trisomy 21: Down syndrome
    • 3N -- 21 Chr
    • monosomy: XO
    • Turner synd
  21. MEIOSIS:
    • 2N → N
    • diploid → haploid

    serial/ sequential

    mitosis w/ 1 maj differences
  22. MEIOSIS I:
  23. MEIOSIS II:

    (2 laws)
    • Law of segregation = (mendel) always separate sister chrom
    • *only one copy allele/gamate*

    Law of independent assortment = *no linkage*
  24. CLASSICAL GENETICS:
    Law of Multiple -
    • AND
    • 1/p x 1/r = 1/pr
  25. CLASSICAL GENETICS:
    Law of addition -
    • OR
    • 1/p + 1/r = sum
  26. GENETICS:
    Codominance -
    ABO blood types

    AO/ BO/ AB
  27. GENETICS:
    Incomplete Dom -
    • Blending
    • (plant color --> red + white = pink)
  28. neuron
    • (most basic unit/ functional unit)
  29. neuron graph
  30. 3 types of neuron channels:
    Ligand gated: sm polar molec; binds → ∆ conformation

    Voltage gated: voltage which causes chann to open

    Mechanical:
  31. Na gated channel
  32. axon --> AP
  33. Refractory period: (2 types)
    Absolute: cannot have 2nd AP

    Relative: can have 2nd AP stronger signal
  34. Myelination:
    (type of cells)
    cellular insulation

    • CNS = oligodendocytes
    • PNS = schwann cells
  35. Saltatory conduction:
    • jump from node to node
  36. Nervous System - anatomical flow
  37. CNS --> Frontal
    sensory homonculi = integ all sensory mod

    motor homonculi = controls somatic motor n.
  38. CNS --> Occupital Lobe
    • visual sensation
    • lower brain --> mid brain, pons, medulla
  39. Spinal cord anatomy
  40. Cranial N.
    Vagus N. = # of targets
  41. nerves response examples
  42. SENSORY
    • sight
    • smell
    • hearing
    • taste
    • touch
  43. SIGHT
  44. rods/cones
  45. Sound
  46. unrolled chlorea
  47. vestibular system
    • 3 diff angular
    • momentum vectors

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