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2014-03-05 21:34:53
Thoracic Lumbar
chapter 13 thoracic and lumbar spine
thoracic and lumbar spine
Show Answers:

  1. what is the fxn of the intervertebral disks:
    • increase total ROM available to the spinal column
    • shock absorbers of longitudinal and rotational stress placed on the column thru compression
  2. the tough, dense outer layer of the intervertebral disk is called:
    annulus fibrosus
  3. the inner layer of the intervetebral disk, surrounded by the annulus fibrosus is called:
    nucleus pulposus
  4. Where along the spinal column can no intervertebral disk be found:
    1st cervical vertebra (C0-C1) 


    the 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae (C1 - C2)
  5. which intervertebral disks, can be compressed from activities such as running, causing decreased ROM in the lumbar spine:
    • T7-L1 and
    • L5- S1
  6. Which 2 structures of the intervertebral disks are richly innervated by sensory nerves:

    This nerve supply can account for much of the pain associated with disk degeneration or herniation, called:
    • 2 structures
    • annulus fibrosus
    • posterior longitudinal ligament

    This nerve supply can account for much of the pain associated with disk degeneration or herniation, called: diskogenic pain
  7. list the 3 accessory motions that occur at the facet joints:
    • anterior and posterior glide  ( or flexion)
    • lateral glide (extension)
    • compression and distraction (side bending and rotation)
  8. the union between an intervertebral disk and the superior and inferior vertebrae forms the  the :
    • cartilaginous joint
    • the facet joint represent the synovial articulartions
  9. list the structures the lumbar plexus innervates:
    anterior and medial muscles of the thigh and the dermatomes of the medial leg and foot
  10. list the structures the sacral plexus innervates:
    • buttocks 
    • via the sciatic nerve, innervates the muscles of the posterior femur and the entire lower leg
  11. list the distinct sections of the sciatic nerve:
    • tibial nerve: anterior branches of the upper five nerve roots
    • common peroneal nereve: posterior of the upper 4 nerve roots
    • tibial nerve: innervates the hamstrings muscles
  12. what is the primary fxn of the extrinsic muscles:
    provide respiration and movement associated with the upper extremity an scapula, indirectly influencing the spinal column
  13. what is the fxn of the intrinsic muscles:
    lie close to the spinal column and directly influence its motion
  14. segmental stabilization of the lumbar spine, and active during lifting and rotational maneuvers is the fxn of the:
  15. what will be the characteristics of the multifidii in individuals who experience low back pain:
    • atrophy
    • weakness
    • decreased activiation
  16. many spinal pain syndromes are associated with or complicated by which 3 things:
    • improper foot mehcanics
    • muscular tightness of the lower extremity
    • imbalances of the pelvie and abdominal muscles
  17. a common site for stress fx in the lumbar spine is the:
    pars interarticularis
  18. infection of which two systems of general health can cause lower back pain:
    infection of the kidney and urinary tract
  19. list the following load a disk is under in the following:

    sitting and leaning forward:
    • supine: 75 kg
    • standing: 100 kg
    • sitting and leaning forward: 275
  20. physical findings such as pain with axial loading, widespread tenderness, and an excessive show of emotions that may present in pts. with great behavioral influence on their pain is called:
  21. the  classic procedure used to determine whether the indvidual is malingering during the performance of fxnal and special tests is called:
    Hoover test
  22. exercises consists of those motions that localize the pain toward the involved disk is called:
  23. list the 3 things that stability of the spinal segment comes from:
    • active restraints (muscles)
    • passive restraints ( ligaments, facet joints, disks, vertebral bodies and tension from muscultendionus units) 
    • neural control
  24. one of the most common orthopedic conditions seen for tx is:
    strains of the spinal erector muscle groups
  25. the structure that gives the spine rigidity and protect the intervertebral disks against rotational injury is the:
    lumbar facet joints
  26. list the 3 facet joint pathologies:
    • dislocation and subluxation of the facet
    • facet joint syndrome (inflammation)
    • degeneration of the facet itself (arthritis)