Kinesiology Exam #2

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dvdromm
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Kinesiology Exam #2
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2014-03-05 23:17:35
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Kinesiology Exam #2
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  1. Joint Architecture
    Synarthroses
    • Absorbs shorck, permit little or no movement
    • Sutures: skull
    • Syndesmoses: coracoacromial, mid-radioulnar, mid-tibiofibular, inferior tibiofibular
  2. Joint Architecture
    Amphiarthroses
    • attenuate applied forces and permit slight
    • motion of adjacent bones

    • •Synchondroses: held together by a thin layer
    • of hyaline cartilage; sternocostal joints, epiphyseal plate plates
    • before ossification

    • •Symphyses: plates of hyaline cartilage
    • separate a disc of fibrocartilage from the bones; vertebral joints and pubic
    • symphysis
  3. Syndesmosis
  4. Synchondroses
  5. Symphyses
  6. Suture joints / type
    skull, synarthrosis joint
  7. Syndesmosis joint / type
    coracoacromial, mid-radioulnar, mid-tibiofibular, inferior tibiofibular

    synarthrosis joint
  8. Synchondrosis joint
    • held together by a thin
    • layer of hyaline cartilage; sternocostal joints, epiphyseal plate plates before
    • ossification
  9. Symphysis
    • plates of hyaline
    • cartilage separate a disc of fibrocartilage from the bones; vertebral joints
    • and pubic symphysis
  10. Diathrosis Joints / Types (6)
    freely movable

    • •Articulating bone surfaces are
    • covered with articular cartilage; articular capsule surrounds the joint, and a
    • synovial membrane lining secrets synovial fluid

    • •Gliding
    • •Hinge
    • •Pivot
    • •Condyloid
    • •Saddle
    • •Ball and socket
  11. name
    Diathroses Joint

  12. Intercarpal
    Gliding


  13. Elbow
    Hinge

  14. Atlantoaxial
    • Pivot
    • between the first and second cervical vertebrae; the atlas and axis


  15. Radiocarpal
    Condyloid


  16. metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP)
    • Condyloid


  17. thumb
    saddle


  18. shoulder (or hip)
    Ball & Socket
  19. bursae
    A bursa (plural bursae) is a small fluid-filled (synovial fluid) sac lined by synovial membrane with an inner capillary layer of viscous fluid. This helps to reduce friction between the bones and allows free movement. Bursae are filled with synovial fluid and are found around most major joints of the body.
  20. Tendon Sheaths
    • a layer of membrane around a tendon.
    • It permits the tendon to move.
    • It has two layers:
    • synovial sheath
    • fibrous tendon sheath
  21. Articular Cartilage
    • Dense, white connective tissue that provides
    • a protective lubrication.
    • •1-5 mm thick
    • •Coats ends of articulating bones
    • in diarthrodial joints
    • Purpose
    • 1.reduces amount of stress between
    • joints (50%)
    • •spreads load over a wide area
    • 2. allows movement with
    • minimal friction and   wear
  22. Dense, white connective
    tissue that provides a protective lubrication
    Articular Cartilage
  23. Articular Fibrocartilage
    • In form of fibrocartilaginous disc or partial discs
    • •Menisci of knee and intervertebral discs
    • Possible purposes:
    • 1.Distribution of loads over joint
    • surface
    • 2.Improvement of fit for
    • articulating surfaces
    • 3.Limitation of bone slip within
    • joint
    • 4.Protection of periphery of
    • articulation
    • 5.Lubrication
    • 6.Shock Absorption
  24. Joint Stability
    • Ability of a joint to resist abnormal
    • displacement of the articulating bones
    • •To resist dislocation
    • •To prevent injury to ligaments,
    • muscles, and tendons
    • Includes:
    • •Shape of articulating bone
    • surfaces
    • •Arrangement of Ligaments and
    • Muscles
    • •Other connective tissues
  25. Factors responsible for stability
    • 1.Bony structure
    • 2.Ligaments
    • 3.Muscle tension
    • 4.Fascia
    • 5.Atmospheric pressure
  26. Fascia
    • •White fibrous connective tissue
    • •Surrounds muscles and bundles of muscle fibers within muscles
    • •Provides protection and support
    • •Example:
    • iliotibial band
    • Crosses lateral aspect of knee
  27. Atmospheric Pressure
    • •Atmospheric pressure pushes on the outside of the joint with a greater force that the outward pushing force within the joint
    • cavity
    • •The suction created is am important factor in
    • resisting dislocation of a joint
  28. Factors Influencing Joint Flexibility
    • Four factors that affect the stability of a
    • joint are also related to its ROM
    • 1.Shapes of articulating bone surfaces
    • 2.Muscles and tendons: single most important factor, flexibility should not exceed muscle’s ability to maintain integrity of
    • joint
    • 3.Restraining effect of ligaments
    • 4.Fatty tissue
    • •Additional
    • factors include: gender, body build, heredity, occupation, exercise, and age
  29. Techniques for Increasing
    Joint Flexibility
    • –Neuromuscular Response to Stretch
    • –Active and Passive Stretching
    • –Ballistic and Static Stretching
    • –Proprioceptive
    • Neuromuscular Facilitation
  30. Neuromuscular Response to
    Stretch
    •Golgi tendon organs (GTOs)
    • –Sensory receptor
    • –Muscle-tendon junctions
    • –INHIBITS tension development in a
    • muscle and initiates tension in antagonist muscle
    • –Promotes muscle relaxation of the
    • activated muscle
  31. •Golgi tendon organs (GTOs)
  32. Neuromuscular Response to Stretch
    Muscle Spindle (stretch reflex)
    • –Interspersed throughout the muscle fibers
    • –Primary Muscle Spindle (Dynamic)
    • •Responds to amount and RATE of muscle lengthening
    • –Secondary Muscle Spindle (Static)
    • •Responds to amount of muscle lengthening
    • •Slow rate of stretching does not elicit MS
    • response
  33. Static stretching
    • gradual
    • stretching up to the point of discomfort, and hold for a minimum of 30 sec
    • preferred method, less tissue damage
  34. Ballistic stretching
    • •consists of active bouncing, that uses momentum to stretch tissues
    • –may trigger stretch reflex
    • –to develop dynamic flexibility
    • –base flexibility; slow; small ROM stretches; increased to fast, large ROM stretches
  35. Active stretching
    • •Antagonists of joint action are stretched by
    • concentric contraction of contralateral muscles
    • •May be used with almost any joint or body
    • part
    • • Active-assisted may also be used
  36. Passive stretching
    • •Requires the help of another person or
    • gravity
    • •Partner stretches
    • •Example is quadriceps stretching
  37. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF stretch)
    • Generally an active PNF stretch involves a shortening contraction of the opposing muscle to place the target muscle on stretch. This is followed by an isometric contraction of the target muscle. PNF can be used to
    • supplement daily stretching and is employed to make quick gains in range of motion to help athletes improve performance.
  38. pennate muscle fiber types
    • Unipennate: all the fascicles are on the same side of the tendon
    • Bipennate: there are fascicles on both sides of the central tendon
    • multipennate: the central tendon branches within a pennate muscle
  39. Behavioral properties of muscle tissue
    • –Extensibility
    • –Elasticity
    • –Irritability
    • –Ability to develop tension
  40. Human body has approx. ___ muscles
    __-__% of total body weight in adults
    __ muscle pairs responsible for bodily movements and posture
    • Human body has approx. 434 muscles
    • 40-45% of total body weight in adults
    • 75 muscle pairs responsible for bodily movements and posture
  41. Muscle Fibers Contain
    • •Sarcolemma
    • •Sarcoplasm
    • •Nuclei
    • •Mitochondria
    • •Myofibrils
    • •Myofilaments
  42. Sarcomere
    • •Z lines
    • •M line
    • •A band
    • •Myosin filaments
    • •I band
    • •Actin filaments
    • •H zone
  43. The Muscle Fiber (Cell)
    •Consist of myofibrils held together by sarcolemma (cell membrane), which can propagate nerve impulses
  44. The Muscle Fiber (Cell)
  45. Myofibrils
    • •Are arranged in parallel formation which
    • create alternating dark & light bands that give muscle fiber their striated
    • appearance
    • •Each fiber enclosed by endomysium
    • Sacromeres
    • •Myofibril between two Z lines
    • •Functional contractile unit of skeletal
    • muscle
  46. outside lines of sarcomere
    Z lines
  47. bisects sarcomere
    M line
  48. is length of myosin (light
    doesn’t pass)
    A band
  49. largest contractile protein
    Myosin filaments
  50. length of actin (light passes)
    I band
  51. contractile protein
    Actin filaments
  52. contain only myosin
    H zone
  53. During muscle contraction
    • Z  lines move towards the A bands
    • A  bands maintains original shape
    • H  zones disappear
    • Myosin filaments (cross-bridges) form physical linkages with the actin filaments
  54. Fasiculus
    (bundle of fibers) enclosed by perimysium
  55. epimysium
    •Group of bundles encased within epimysium
  56. THE MOTOR UNIT
    • •Consist of a single MU and all the muscle
    • fibers its axon supplies
    • •All muscle fibers in a MU are of the same
    • muscle fiber type
  57. Fiber Types
    • –Type I: Slow-twitch oxidative
    • (SO)
    • –Type IIa: Fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic
    • (FOG)
    • –Type IIb: Fast-twitch glycolytic
    • (FG)
    • •Peak tension reached in FT in 1/7 time of ST
  58. Effects of training on fiber types*
    • –Endurance training can increase
    • ST contraction velocity by 20%
    • –Resistance training can convert
    • FT fibers from Type IIb to Type IIa
  59. Muscular Attachments
    • •Muscle attaches to bone by connective tissue, which continues beyond the muscle belly to form a tendon         
    • •Origin: usually more proximal
    • •Insertion: usually more distal
    • •Contraction produces equal force on the two
    • attachments
    • •Origin usually stabilized by other muscles
  60. Longitudinal muscle
    • •long, strap like muscle with fibers in parallel to its long axis
    • •Consist of parallel fibers
    • Sartorius
  61. Quadrate or Quadrilateral muscle
    • •four sided and usually flat
    • •Consist of parallel fibers
    • Rhomboids
  62. Triangular or Fan-Shaped
    • •fibers radiate from a narrow attachment at
    • one end to a broad attachment at the other
    • Pectoralis major
  63. Fusiform or Spindle-Shaped
    • rounded muscle that tapers at either end
    • •Brachioradialis
  64. Unipenniform
    • Tibialis posterior
  65. Bipenniform
    • Rectus Femoris
  66. Multipenniform
    • Middle deltoid
  67. •The greater the angle of pennation, the
    ______ amount of effective force transmitted to the tendon to move the attached bone

    •Once the angle of pennation exceeds __º, the amount of effective force transferred to the tendon is less than one-half of the force actually produced by the muscle fibers.

    •Sprinters: leg muscle pennation
    angles ___ than those of distance runners

    –Smaller pennaction angle favors greater shortening velocity for faster running speeds
    •The greater the angle of pennation, thesmaller amount of effective force transmitted to the tendon to move the attached bone

    •Once the angle of pennation exceeds 60º, the amount of effective force transferred to the tendon is less than one-half of the force actually produced by the muscle fibers.

    • •Sprinters: leg muscle pennationangles less that those of distance runners
    • –Smaller pennaction angle favors greater shortening velocity for faster running speeds
  68. The force a muscle can exert is proportional to
    its cross sectional area
  69. A penniform muscle of the same thickness as a longitudinal muscle
    can exert greater force
  70. The _____ arrangement of fiber allows for a
    larger number of fibers than in comparable sizes of other classifications
    oblique
  71. can exert force over a longer distance
    Long muscles with fibers longitudinally arranges along the long axis
  72. can exert superior force through only a short range
    Pennate muscles with their oblique fiber arrange and short fibers
  73. •Concentric
    • –Bicep shortening with the bicep
    • curl (flexion)
  74. •Isometric
    • –Body builders develop isometric
    • contraction in competition


    • 1. Antagonistic muscles contract
    • with equal strength

    • 2. Muscle is held against another
    • force
  75. •Eccentric
    • –Acts as a breaking mechanism to
    • control movement
  76. Synergists
    •cooperative muscle function

    –Stabilizing, Fixator, & Support Muscles
  77. Bi-articular
     a muscle crosses two or more joints

    • –Biceps brachii, long head of triceps brachii, hamstrings, rectus femoris, many muscles crossing the wrist
    • and all finger joints
  78. Countercurrent Movement
    • one muscles shortens
    • rapidly at both joints its antagonists lengthens correspondingly and thereby
    • gains tension at both ends

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