BIO Neurons and Brain Quiz

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mattchitown
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265289
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BIO Neurons and Brain Quiz
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2014-03-06 11:24:19
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Brain neurons
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BIO quiz 2
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  1. When neurons connect is called what
    synapse
  2. carry signal out of cell body
    axons
  3. what are the functions of the nervous system
    coordinate w/organs, communicate w/organs, control organs
  4. what are more functions of the nervous system?
    perceive(input)/react to environment(output), brain takes info from environment and reacts app.
  5. what comprises the CNS
    Brain, Spine
  6. what comprises the Peripheral Nervous System
    cranial, spinal nerves + branches
  7. afferent
    sensory, input or anything coming in
  8. efferent
    motor, output or outbound neurons going out
  9. Somatic
    Voluntary( only one is skeletal muscle)
  10. Autonomic
    involuntary(more nervous tissue devoted to involuntary)
  11. Conduct electrochemical impulses to other neurons, muscles, and glands
    neuron
  12. Dendrite
    receive stimulus
  13. nucleus, make nuerotransmitter (nt)
    cell body
  14. Conduct impulses away from cell body
    axon
  15. side branch of axon
    collateral
  16. terminal branches of axon
    telodendria
  17. synaptic terminals
    release (nt)
  18. membrane, contains pumps and channels
    neurolemma
  19. cytoplasm, contains HIK+(potassium)
    neuroplasm
  20. gap between neuron and next cell(could be a neuron, muscle or a gland)
    synapse
  21. all neurons aren't what
    necessarily mylenaited
  22. 1 process, usually sensory
    unipolar
  23. 2 processes; uncommon; nose and eye
    bipolar
  24. many processes; usually motor and are mostly dendrites
    multipolar
  25. afferent and sensory are what
    equal when it comes to senses in the CNS
  26. neuron to neuron in CNS
    interneuron/association
  27. communication between neurons only takes place in what
    brain and spinal cord
  28. common in brain, memory, reasoning, purkije, pyramidial cells
    internueron/association
  29. CNS to a muscle or a gland
    motor
  30. tells body what to do
    motor functions
  31. cells support, protect neurons
    neurogila
  32. myelinate PNS axons with a plasticy substance
    schwaan cell
  33. insulate axon, prevent distortion, faster impulse
    schwaan cell
  34. unmyelinated areas, site of impluse
    node of ranvier
  35. myelinate CNS axons
    oligo dendrocyte
  36. maintain blood-brain barrier, control brain environment(keep unwanted toxins out of brain)
    astrocyte
  37. produce CSF in ventricles
    ependymal cell
  38. phagocytize bacteria, debris(janitorial services)
    microglia
  39. sodium comes in equals
    depolarization
  40. before neuron is stimulated is
    resting membrane potential
  41. inside neuron more what than the outside
    negative (-), (-70mv)
  42. Na+/K+ pump(sodium potassium pump) moves how many NA+ to outside
    3
  43. Sodium potassium pump moves how many K+ inside
    2
  44. What is the charge of the protons stuck inside neuron during the resting membrane potential
    negative (-)
  45. During the resting membrane potential stage of neuron activity what channels are closed
    Na+ and K+
  46. How fast is the action potential/impulse phase in neuron activity
    2m sec
  47. the action potential phase of neuron activity is a
    all or none event
  48. what is the threshhold for the brain to recongnize and fire the nueron
    -55 mv
  49. when the threshhold of -55mv is reached what is started
    Action potential (AP)
  50. How long is depolarization in the action potential phase of neuron activity
    0.5 msec
  51. upswing of the action potential and consists of 25 percent of activity
    depolarization
  52. During depolarization in the action potential stage of neuron activity when Na+ channels open what diffuses into the cell
    Na+
  53. Once inside the cell during depolarization it is
    30mv from (-70mv)
  54. During depolarization what channels are closed
    K+ channels
  55. Repolarization is how fast
    0.5 msec
  56. downswing of action potential
    repolarization
  57. during repolarization what channels open
    K+
  58. during repolarization what goes out of the cell
    K+ diffuses out
  59. Once inside the cell during repolarization the charge goes back to
    -70mv
  60. during repolarization what channels are closed
    N+ channels
  61. Neuron takes a break, cannot fire a neuron
    refractory period
  62. How fast is the refractory period
    1msec
  63. what happens during refractory period
    cannot fire AP, ion gradient reestablished
  64. When some axons dont have mylein it is what instead of jumping the myelin
    continuous
  65. What makes the neuron release the NT
    calicum
  66. what is the third stage in neuron activity
    Propagation along axon
  67. what does salatory mean
    leaping
  68. leaps from node to node 4x faster
    myleinated axons
  69. what happens to excess nt's lingering in the synapse they get
    degraded
  70. synaptic terminal is what
    bulb
  71. what happens during synaptic terminal
    Action Potential arrives
  72. What channels open up in the synaptic terminal stage
    Ca++/calcium channels
  73. What diffuses in during the synaptic terminal stage
    Ca++ diffuses in
  74. what helps release nt
    calcium
  75. During the synaptic terminal stage what is activated
    enzymes
  76. nt is released into synapse by what
    exocytosis
  77. What is the fifth stage in neuron activity
    across the synapse
  78. N+ diffuses to what in the across the synapse stage
    diffuses to postsynaptic cell/bind to receptor
  79. breaks down nt
    degrader
  80. what is the sixth stage in neuron activity
    post-synaptic receptor
  81. during post-synaptic cell what happens
    N+ binds to receptor
  82. IPSP stands for
    Inhibtory Post Synaptic Potential
  83. Hyperpolarization
    inhibits
  84. During IPSP what happens
    the cell is turn off, deactivates
  85. what does EPSP stand for
    Excitory Post Synaptic Potential
  86. During the Post synaptic stage  of neuron activity what happens
    The cells are turned on, activated
  87. deploarization in the post synaptic cell
    brings it closer to threshhold and opens sodium channel
  88. During depolarization in EPSP what channels open
    Na+ channels
  89. NT releases into the
    synapse
  90. Hormones release into the
    blood
  91. chemical that diffuses across synapse
    neurotransmitter
  92. how many different NT are there
    50
  93. what is the most common nt
    acetlychoine (ach)
  94. excitatroy at neuromuscular and glandular junctions what degrades
    achetylcholinesterase (ache)
  95. Dopamine makes you feel
    good
  96. pleasure centers of brain, reward mechanism, cocaine prevents degrade
    dopamine
  97. dopamine is what in your subconscious motor function
    inhibotory
  98. low dopamine in basal nuclei is
    parkinsons disease
  99. excite at smooth and cardiac muscles, glands; also used as a hormone
    norepinephrine
  100. inhibit in brain; valium similar
    GABA
  101. what is the feel good molecule
    serotonin
  102. mood elevator, feel good, confindent, well being, prozac prevents degrade
    serotonin
  103. inhibit pain; morphine similar, runner high
    endorphins
  104. white matter is like a
    wire
  105. gray matter is the
    decision maker
  106. what are the parts of the brain
    medulla, pons, mesencephalon, diencephalon, cerebellum, cerebrum
  107. one function of the brain is
    interpret senstations(inputs things coming in from everywhere)
  108. what is a second function of the brain
    store and intergrate information and experiences
  109. Third function is
    perform behaviors
  110. synapses, cell bodies, dendrites, integrate, process info what type of matter is this
    gray matter/nuclei
  111. What type of matter has mylelinated axons, transports AP, and is referred to as the info super highway
    white matter/tracts
  112. dictates where extra blood goes
    medualla
  113. Medulla oblongata is what functions
    autonomic/involuntary like breathing
  114. medulla oblongata controls heart rate, diameter of vessels in what system
    cardiovascular
  115. breathing rate, coughing sneezing
    respiratory
  116. swallowing, peristalis, vomiting, defecation
    digestive
  117. coordination, balance
    olives
  118. conscious awareness/wake sleep
    recticular formation
  119. What do the medulla oblongata control
    cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, olives, reticular formation
  120. ascending and descending tracts carry AP to/from other
    brain parts
  121. most tracts cross over from left to right right to left
    decussation of pyramids
  122. craninal nerves VIII-XII are plugged into
    medulla
  123. brain is director muscles
    follow
  124. part of brain that links to cerebellum, controls breathing rate and reticular formation
    Pons(bridge)
  125. Craninal nerves 5-8 go to
    medulla and pons
  126. superior colliculus
    visual processing
  127. inferior colliculus
    audio processing
  128. Craninal nerves 3,4 control
    movement of eyeball
  129. conductor of all muscles
    cerebellum
  130. what part of the brain controls coordination
    cerebellum
  131. What part of the brain regulates muscular movements, body position, posture, and balance
    cerebellum
  132. What part of the brain has input from tendons, ligaments, muscles, joints inner ear, eye
    cerebellum
  133. what is the decision make part of the cerebellum
    cortex(gray matter)
  134. what part of the cerebellum contains purkinje cells, and molecular and granular layers
    cortex(gray matter)
  135. wrinkles of cerebellum
    folia
  136. What part of the cerebellum is central, narrow band of cortex, divide l/r hemisphere
    vermis
  137. what part of cerebellum conducts AP to/from cortex
    arbor vitae(white matter)
  138. what connects to arbor vitae
    cerebellar peduncles
  139. superior--
    cerebrum
  140. middle--
    pons
  141. inferior--
    medulla
  142. secretary manages inputs part of the brain
    thalamus
  143. when you have a lot of glucose in the blood you are
    not hungry
  144. what part of the brain manages sensory inputs
    thalamus
  145. the thalamus pritorizes what
    sensory input
  146. the thalamus filters out
    irrelavent inputs, 'noise'
  147. what part of the brain relays important info to appropriate part of brain
    thalamus
  148. occipital lobe
    visual
  149. temporal lobe
    auditory
  150. parietal lobe
    touch, pressure, pain, temperature
  151. what part of the brains main function is to regulate homeostasis
    hypothalamus
  152. what part of the brain is in charge of the endocrine system
    hypothalamus
  153. what part of the brain controls heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, digestion via medulla
    hypothalamus
  154. What part of brain controls thermoregulation
    hypothalamus
  155. sweating, shivering, shunting blood
    thermoregulation

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