Chapter 9 - Muscles and Muscle Tissue

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Chapter 9 - Muscles and Muscle Tissue
2014-03-20 02:41:09
Vocabulary StudyGuide

Biology 103A
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  1. muscle fiber
    a muscle cell
  2. skeletal muscle tissue
    is packaged into the skeletal muscles, organs that attach to and cover the bony skeleton
  3. cardiac muscle tissue
    occurs only in the heart (the body's blood pump), where it constitutes the bulk of the heart walls
  4. smooth muscle tissue
    is found in the walls of hollow visceral organs, such as the stomach, urinary bladder, and respiratory passages
  5. voluntary muscle
    muscle under strict nervous control, skeletal muscle
  6. involuntary muscle
    muscle that cannot ordinarily be controlled voluntarily, ex: smooth and cardiac muscle
  7. excitability
    the ability to receive and respond to a stimulus
  8. contractility
    the ability to contract forcibly when stimulated
  9. extensibility
    the ability to be stretched
  10. elasticity
    the ability to resume the cells’ original length once stretched
  11. skeletal muscle
    a discrete organ, made up of several kinds of tissues
  12. tendons
    cord of dense fibrous tissue attaching muscle to bone
  13. epimysium
    an "overcoat" of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the whole muscle
  14. perimysium
    a layer of fibrous connective tissue that bundles muscle fibers into fascicles
  15. endomysium
    a wispy sheath of fine areolar connective tissue that surrounds each individual muscle fiber
  16. fascicle
    bundle of nerve or muscle fibers bound together by connective tissue
  17. insertion
    movable attachment of a muscle
  18. origin
    immovable or less movable attachment of a muscle
  19. direct or fleshy attachments
    the epimysium of the muscle is fused to the periosteum of a bone or periochondrium of a cartilage
  20. indirect attachments
    the muscle's connective tissue wrappings extend beyond the muscle either as a ropelike tendon or as a sheetlike aponeurosis
  21. aponeurosis
    fibrous or membranous sheet connecting a muscle and the part it moves
  22. sacroplasm
    the cytoplasm of a muscle
  23. sacrolemma
    the plasma membrane of muscle cells
  24. myofibril
    rodlike bundle of contractile filaments (myofilaments) found in muscle fibers (cells) and are made up of thin and thick myofilaments
  25. myofilament
    filament that constitutes myofibrils, two types: actin and myosin
  26. sarcomere
    the smallest contractile unit of muscle; extends from one Z disc to the next
  27. thick filament
    contains actin polymers with associated proteins
  28. thin filament
    contains myosin molecules bound together
  29. myosin
    one of the principal contractile proteins found in muscle, which primarily compose thick filaments
  30. actin
    a contractile protein of muscle which primarily compose thin filaments
  31. tropomyosin
    one of the several regulatory proteins from thin filaments, a rod-shaped proteins, spiral about the actin core and help stiffen and stabilize it
  32. troponin
    one of the several regulatory proteins from thin filaments, a globular three-polypeptide complex
  33. elastic filament
    composed of the giant protein titin
  34. dystrophin
    links the thin filaments to the integral proteins of the sarcolemma (which in turn are anchored to the extracellular matrix)
  35. motor unit
    motor neuron and all fibers it innverates
  36. sarcoplasmic reticulum
    specialized endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells
  37. Transverse tubule (T tubule)
    infoldings of the sarcolemma that conduct electrical impulses from the surface of the cell to the terminal cisternae
  38. triad
    regions where the SR terminal cisterns border a T tubule on each slide
  39. neuromuscular junction
    the junction between an axon of a motor neuron and a muscle cell
  40. synaptic cleft
    fluid-filled space at a synpase