Affect is a component of emotion and emotion is a more specific version of mood.
appraisal of an event as painful or pleasurable.
judgments about important things, appraising an external object as salient for our own well-being.
General, free-floating feelings that last longer than an emotion.
Measurement of positive/negative affect
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS-X) with two dimensions of affect: valence and content. Valence (unpleasant or pleasant) Content (general distress or joviality, self assurance, and attentiveness)
Relationship between positive and negative affect
negative and positive affect have small/weak negative correlations indicating independent relationships between the two.
Research findings pioneered by Dr. Alice Isen
when experiencing mild positive emotions we are more likely 1) to help other people, 2) to be flexible in our thinking, and 3) to come up with solutions to our problems.
Broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions
The experience of a positive emotion expands the realm of what a person feels like doing at that time (broadening) and thus help build resources (increases in creative problem solving for example)
Major families of positive emotions and resources they broaden and build
Joy and Contentment lead to broadening of novel thoughts, activities, and/or relationships. Build enduring personal resources (social support, resilience, skills and knowledge)
Research evidence behind Dr. Frederickson's theory
positive emotions predicted overall increases in creative problem solving and thus increases and changing experience of positive emotions. This process is also known as the "upward spiral" of positive emotions.
Magic ratio of positive to negative emotions that best reflects flourishing
2 positive for every 9 negative
Different approaches/theories to defining happiness
1) need/goal satisfaction (reduction of tension/satisfaction of needs), 2) process/activity (engagement in particular life activities generates happiness), and 3) genetic/personality predisposition (happiness is stable).
combination of positive affect and general life satisfaction which is measured with the "Satisfaction With Life Scale"
Key determinants of subjective well-being
Financial/Economic status, marital status and marital quality, social relationships.
21st century definitions of happiness building upon earlier approaches
pleasure, satisfaction, and life meaning built upon from our psychological strengths
Cultures affect on understanding of happiness
Eastern culture (spiritual cultivation and transcendence of the present)
Western culture (enjoyment of present life)
Complete Mental Health
Combination of high levels of emotional, social, and psychological well-being