Chapter 6 - Matter

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tiffanydawnn
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26532
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Chapter 6 - Matter
Updated:
2010-07-12 23:09:57
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chemistry matter
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States of Matter
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  1. Solid
    • substance maintains shape and volume
    • rigidly packed 3-dimensional pattern
    • definite shape
    • definite volume
    • particles packed and touching
    • high density
    • small compressibility
    • very small thermal expansion
  2. Liquids
    • substance assumes shape of its container
    • flows readily
    • indefinite shape
    • definite volume
    • particles touching and mobile
    • high density
    • small compressibility
    • small thermal expansion
  3. Gas
    • substance maintains neither shape nor volume
    • indefinite shape
    • indefinite volume
    • particles far apart
    • low density
    • large compressibility
    • moderate thermal expansion
    • mix spontaneously and completely through diffusion
  4. chemical bonds
    attractive forces that hold atoms together in molecules and ions together in crystals
  5. ionic bons
    • metal + nonmetal
    • complete transfer of valence electrons
    • form crystalline solids
    • high melting points
    • water soluble
    • can conduct electricity (electrolyte)
  6. covalent bond
    • valence electrons shared by 2 atoms in a compound
    • single, double, triple bonds
  7. nonpolar covalent bond
    • equal sharing of electrons
    • occurs between same kind of atoms (H2, Cl2)
  8. polar covalent bond
    • unequal sharing of electrons
    • occurs between atoms of different elements (H2O, SO3)
  9. electronegativity
    • the ability of an atom to attract shared electrons to itself in a covalent bond
    • electrons are attracted toward atoms of highest electronegativity
    • periodic table increases left to right, decreases top to bottom
  10. intermolecular forces
    • forces between molecules
    • --dipole forces
    • --hydrogen bonds
    • --london dispersion forces
  11. dipole forces
    • polar covalent bonds
    • electron pairs shared unequally
    • unbalanced separate center of partial positive and negative charges
    • positive end attracts negative end
  12. hydrogen bonds
    • intermolecular force between electropositive H (bonded to N, O, F) and electronegative O, F, N
    • strongest bond
  13. london dispersion forces
    • non polar molecules
    • small transient momentary attractive forces
    • weakest bond
  14. kinetic energy
    • proportional to kelvin temp
    • temp increaes, particle velocity increases
    • at fixed temp, lighter particles move faster than heavier particles
  15. Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
    • 1. gases move continuously, rapidly, randomly
    • 2. particles are tiny / great distances
    • 3. forces between molecules are negligible
    • 4. collisions are elastic (no energy loss)
    • 5. average kinetic energy of gas particles is same for all gases at same temp
  16. atmosphere
    • thin blanket of gases around earth
    • 78% N2, 21% O2, 1% Ar, 4% H2O, trace CO2
  17. atmospheric pressure
    force per unit area exerted by atmosphere
  18. pressure
    • force exerted per unit area
    • pressure = force/area
  19. pressure units
    • atm: atmosphere
    • mm Hg: mm mercury
    • torr
    • Pa: pascal (SI unit of pressure)
    • psi: pounds per square inch
  20. standard pressure
    1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 14.7 psi = 101,325 Pa
  21. Boyle's Law
    Pressure and volume inversely proportional at constant temp and qty of gas

    P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 = constant k
  22. Charles's Law
    Volume and temperature are linear

    V^T^
  23. Gay-Lussac's Law
    Pressure and temp are linear

    P^T^
  24. Avogadro's Law
    Equal volumes of gases contain equal number of molecules (or atoms)

    V1/n1 = V2/n2
  25. Ideal Gas Law
    PV = nRT

    • P = pressure
    • V = volume
    • T = temp
    • n = quanity of gas
  26. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
    total pressure of gas mixture = sum of partial pressures of exerted gases

    P(total) = P1 + P2 + P3
  27. Oxidation
    • lose electron
    • lose hydrogen
    • gain oxygen
    • increase oxidation number
  28. Reduction
    • gain electrons
    • gain hydrogen
    • lose oxygen
    • decrease oxidation number
  29. Rules of ON
    • 1. ON of any single element is 0
    • 2. ON of simple ion = charge of ion (Mg2+ = +2)
    • 3. ON of 1A and 2A elements when in compounds is +1, +2
    • 4. ON of H is always +1
    • 5. ON of O is always -2
    • 6. Sum of ON of all atoms in compound = 0
    • 7. Sum of ON of all atoms in polyatomic ion = charge of ion

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