Chapter 11

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Chapter 11
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2014-03-09 18:04:46
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Exploring Medical Language 8th edition Lafleur
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Digestive System
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  1. Define

    mouth
    • opening through which food passes into the body
    • breaks food into small particles by mastication (chewing) and mixing with saliva
  2. Define

    tongue
    • consists mostly of skeletal muscle
    • attached in the posterior region of the mouth
    • it provides movement of food formastication
    • directs food to the pharynx for swllowing
    • and is a major organ for taste and speech
  3. Define

    palate and name all three
    • separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
    • soft palate
    • hard palate
    • uvula
  4. Define

    soft palate
    posterior portion, not supported by bone
  5. Define

    hard palate
    anterior portion, supported by bone
  6. Define

    uvula
    • soft V-shaped structure that extends from the soft palate
    • directs food into the throat
  7. Define

    pharynx, throat
    performs the swallowing action that passes food from the mouth into the esophagus
  8. Define

    esophagus
    • 10-inch tube that is a passageway for food extending from the pharynx to the stomach
    • peristalsis, involuntary wavelike movements that propel food along the digestive tract, begins in the esophagus
  9. Define

    stomach

    and name all six parts
    • J-shaped sac that mixes and stores food
    • it secretes chemicals for digestion and
    • hormones for local communication control
    • cardia
    • fundus
    • body
    • antrum
    • pylorus
    • pyloric sphincter
  10. Define

    cardia
    area around the opening of the esophagus
  11. Define

    fundus
    uppermost domed portion of the stomach
  12. Define

    body
    central portion of the stomach
  13. Define

    antrum
    lower portion of the stomach
  14. Define

    pylorus
    portion of the stomach that connects to the small intestine
  15. Define

    pyloric sphincter
    ring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and the duodenum
  16. Define

    small intestine
    and name all three parts
    • 20-foor canal extending from the pyloric sphincter to the large intestine
    • digestion is completed in the small intestine
    • absorption, (the passage of the nutrients [end products of digestion]) from the small intestine to the bloodstream, takes place through the villi (finger like projections that line the walls of the small intestine)
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  17. Define

    duodenum
    first 10-12 inches of the small intestine
  18. Define

    jejunum
    • second portion of the small intestine
    • approximately 8 feet long
  19. Define

    ileum
    • third portion of the small intestine
    • approximately 11 feet long
    • which connects with the large intestine
  20. Define

    large intestine

    name all 7 parts,
    including the 4 parts of the colon

    *remember, the colon is part of the large intestine, they are not the same thing
    • canal that is approximately 5 feet long
    • extends from the ileum to the anus
    • asorption of water, and
    • elimination of the solid waste products of digestion take place in the large intestine
    • cecum
    • colon:
    •   -ascending colon
    •   -transverse colon
    •   -descending colon
    •   -sigmoid colon
    • rectum
  21. Define

    cecum
    blind U-shaped pouch that is the first portion of the large intestine
  22. Define

    colon

    and name the 4 parts (bonus for 6)
    • next portion of the large intestine
    • the colon is divided into four parts
    • -ascending colon
    •    [hepatic flexure]
    • -transverse colon
    •    [splenic flexure]
    • -descending colon
    • -sigmoid colon
  23. Define

    anus
    sphincter muscle (ring like band of muscle fiber that keeps an opening tight) at the end of the digestive tract
  24. Define

    salivary gland
    produce saliva, which flows into the mouth
  25. Define

    liver
    • produces bile, which is necessary for the digestion of fats
    • the liver performs many other functions concerned with digestion and metabolism
  26. Define

    bile ducts
    • passageways that carry bile
    • the hepatic duct is a passageway for bile from the liver
    • the cystic duct carries bile from the gallbladder
    • they join to form the common bile duct, which conveys bile to the duodenum
    • collectively, these pssageways are referred to as the biliary tract
  27. Define

    gallbladder
    small, saclike structure that stores bile
  28. Define

    pancreas
    • produces pancreatic juice, which helps digest all types of food and
    • secretes insulin for carbohydrate metabolism
  29. Define

    peritoneum
    serous saclike lining of the abdominal and pelvic cavities
  30. Define

    appendix

    also called vermiform appendix
    (vermiform means worm-like)
    • small pouch, which has no know function in digestion
    • attached to the cecum
  31. Define

    abdomen
    portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis
  32. an/o
    combining form

    anus
  33. antr/o
    combining form

    antrum
  34. cec/o
    combining form

    cecum
  35. col/o
    colon/o
    combining form

    • colon
    • (usually denoting the large intestine)
  36. duoden/o
    combining form

    duodenum
  37. esophag/o
    combining form

    esophagus
  38. gastr/o
    combining form

    stomach
  39. ile/o
    combining form

    ileum
  40. jejun/o
    combining form

    jejunum
  41. or/o
    stomat/o

    *study well, get this correct
    combining form

    mouth
  42. proct/o
    rect/o
    combining form

    rectum
  43. sigmoid/o
    combining form

    sigmoid colon
  44. abdomin/o
    celi/o
    lapar/o
    combining form

    • abdomen
    • abdominal cavity
  45. append/o
    appendic/o
    combining form

    appendix
  46. cheil/o
    combining form

    lip
  47. cholangi/o
    combining form

    common bile duct
  48. diverticul/o
    combining form

    • diverticulum (pl: diverticula)
    • blind pouce
    • extending from a hollow organ
  49. gingiv/o
    combining form

    gum
  50. gloss/o
    lingu/o
    combining form

    tongue
  51. hepat/o
    combining form

    liver
  52. herni/o
    combining form

    • hernia
    • protrusion of an organ through a membrane or cavity wall
  53. palat/o
    combining form

    palate
  54. pancreat/o
    combining form

    pancreas
  55. peritone/o
    combining form

    peritoneum
  56. polyp/o
    combining form

    • polyp
    • small growth
  57. pylor/o
    combining form

    • pylorus
    • pyloric sphincter
  58. sial/o
    combining form

    • saliva
    • salivary gland
  59. steat/o
    combining form

    fat
  60. uvul/o
    combining form

    uvula
  61. hemi-
    prefix

    half
  62. -pepsia
    suffix

    digestion
  63. appendic/itis
    inflammation of the appendix
  64. cholangi/oma

    choledoch = common bile duct as opposed to
    cholangi = bile duct
    tumor of the bile duct
  65. chol/e/cyst/itis

    ghol/e/ = cyst/o = gallbladder
    inflammation of the gallbladder
  66. choledoch/o/lith/iasis

    choledoch = common bile duct as opposed to
    cholangi = bile duct
    condition of stones in the common bile duct
  67. chole/lith/iasis
    condition of gallstones
  68. diverticul/itis
    inflammation of a diverticulum
  69. diverticul/osis
    abnormal condition of having diverticula
  70. esophag/itis
    inflammation of the esophagus
  71. gastr/itis
    inflammation of the stomach
  72. gastr/o/enter/itis
    inflammation of the stomach and intestines
  73. gastr/o/enter/o/col/itis
    inflammation of the stomach, intestine, and colon
  74. gingiv/itis
    inflammation of the gums
  75. hepat/itis
    inflammation of the liver
  76. hepat/oma
    tumor of the liver
  77. palat/itis
    inflammation of the palate
  78. pancreat/itis
    inflammation of the pancreas
  79. periton/itis

    *Note, the 'e' is dropped from the combining form peritone/o, pay attention for spelling
    inflammation of the peritoneum
  80. polyp/osis
    • abnormal condition of (multiple) polyps
    • in the mucous membrane of the intestine
    • especially the colon
    • high potential for malignancy
  81. proct/o/ptosis
    prolapse of the rectum
  82. rect/o/cele
    protrusion of the rectum
  83. sial/o/lith
    stone in the salivary gland
  84. steat/o/hepat/itis
    • inflammation of the liver associated with (excess) fat
    • often caused by alcohol abuse and obesity
    • over time may cause cirrhosis
  85. uvul/itis
    inflammation of the uvula
  86. adhesion
    • abnormal growing together of two surfaces that normally are separated
    • this may occur after abdominal surgery
    • surgical treatment is called adhesiolysis or adhesiotomy
  87. anorexia nervosa
    • eating disorder characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat
    • resulting in emaciation
    • amenorrhea in females, and
    • abnormal fear of becoming obese
    • it occurs primarily in adolescents and young adults
  88. bulimia nervosa
    • an eating disorder involving gorging with food, followed by induced vomiting or laxative abuse
    • binging and purging
  89. celi/ac disease

    also called gluten enteropathy
    • a malabsorption syndrome
    • caused by an immune reaction to gluten (a protein in wheat, rye, and barley)
    • which may damage the lining of the small intestine that is responsible for absorption of food into the bloodstream
    • celiac disease is considered a multisystem disorder with varying symptoms, including
    • abdominal bloating
    • paid
    • chronic diarrhea or constipation
    • steatorrhea
    • vomiting
    • weight loss
    • ftigue
    • iron deficiency anemia
    • pruritic skin rash known as dermatitis herpetiformis
  90. cirrhosis
    • chronic disease of the liver with
    • gradual destruction of cells and formation of scar tissue
    • commonly caused by alcoholism and certain types of viral hepatitis
  91. Crohn disease

    also called regional ileitis
    or regional enteritis
    • chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract
    • usually affecting the ileum and colon
    • characterized by cobblestone ulcerations and the formation of scar tissue that may lead to intestinal obstruction
  92. gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    • the abnormal backward flow of the gastrointestinal contents into the esophagus
    • causing heartburn and
    • the gradual breakdown of the mucous barrier of the esophagus
  93. hemochromatosis
    • an iron metabolism disorder that occurs when too much iron is absorbed from food
    • resulting in excessive deposits of iron in the tissue
    • can cause congestive heart failure
    • diabetes
    • cirrhosis or
    • cancer of the liver
  94. hemorrhoids
    • swollen or distended veins in the rectal area
    • which may be internal or external
    • and can be a source of rectal bleeding
  95. ileus
    • obstruction of the intestine
    • often caused by failure of peristalsis
  96. intussusception
    telescoping of a segment of the intestine
  97. irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
    • periodic disturbances of bowel function
    • such as diarrhea and/or constipation
    • usually associated with abdominal pain
  98. obesity
    • excess of body fat
    • NOT body weight
  99. peptic ulcer

    often referred to as a gastric or duodenal ulcer, depending on its location
    • eroded area of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum
    • associated with increased secretion of acid from the stomach
    • bacterial infection (H. pylori)
    • or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  100. polyp
    • tumor-like grown extending outward from a mucous membrane
    • usually benign
    • common sites are in the nose, throat, and intestines
  101. ulcerative colitis
    • inflammation of the colon
    • with the formation of ulcers
    • the main symptom is bloody dirrhea
    • an ileostomy may be performed to treat this condition
  102. volvulus
    • twisting or kinking of the intestine
    • causing intestinal obstruction
  103. abdomin/o/centesis

    also called paracentesis
    surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdominal cavity
  104. abdomin/o/plasty
    surgical repair of the abdomen
  105. an/o/plasty
    surgical repair of then anus
  106. antr/ectomy
    excision of the antrum
  107. append/ectomy
    excision of the appendix
  108. celi/o/tomy
    incision into the abdominal cavity
  109. cheil/o/rraphy
    suture of the lip
  110. chol/e/cyst/ectomy
    excision of the gallbladder
  111. choledoch/o/lith/o/tomy
    incision into the common bile duct to remove a stone
  112. col/ectomy
    excision of the colon
  113. col/o/stomy
    • creation of an artificial opening in the colon (through the abdominal wall)
    • used for he passage of stool
    • creates a mouth-like opening on the abdominal wall called a stoma
    • a colostomy may be permanent or temporary
    • performed as treatment for bowel obstruction, cancer, or diverticulitis
  114. diverticul/ectomy
    excision of a diverticulum
  115. enter/o/rraphy
    suture of the intestine
  116. esophag/o/gastr/o/plasty
    surgical repair of the esophagus and the stomach
  117. gastr/ectomy
    • excision of the stomach
    • or part of the stomach
  118. gastr/o/jejun/o/stomy
    creation of an artificial opening between the stomach and jejunum
  119. gastr/o/plasty
    surgical repair of the stomach
  120. gastr/o/stomy
    • creation of an artificial opening into the stomach
    • through the abdominal wall
    • a tube in inserted through an opening for administration of food when swallowing is impossible
    • *insertion of a feeding tube
  121. gingiv/ectomy
    surgical removal of gum (tissue)
  122. gloss/o/rraphy
    suture of the tongue
  123. hemi/col/ectomy
    excision of half of the colon
  124. herni/o/rraphy
    suturing of a hernia (for repair)
  125. ile/o/stomy
    • creation of an artificial opening into the ileum (through the abdominal wall)
    • creating a stoma, or mouth-like opening on the abdominal wall
    • used for the passage of stool
    • it is performed following total proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, or cancer
  126. lapar/o/tomy
    incision into the abdominal cavity
  127. palat/o/plasty
    surgical repair of the palate
  128. polyp/ectomy
    excision of a polyp
  129. pylor/o/plasty
    surgical repair of the pylorus (pyloric sphincter)
  130. uvul/ectomy
    excision of the uvula
  131. uvul/o/palat/o/pharyng/o/plasty (UPPP)
    • surgical repair of the uvula, palate, and pharynx
    • performed to correct obstructive sleep apnea
  132. abdominoperineal resection
    (A&P resection)
    • removal of the distal colon and rectum through both abdominal and perineal approches
    • performed to treat colorectal cancer and inflammatory diseases of the lower large intestine
    • the patient will have a colostomy
  133. anastomosis
    plural: anastomoses
    • an opening created by surgically joining two structures
    • such as blood vessels or bowel segments
  134. bariatric surgery
    surgical reduction of gastric capacity to treat morbid obesity causing serious illness
  135. hemorrhoidectomy
    • excision of hemorrhoids
    • the swollen or distended veins in the rectal region
  136. vagotomy
    • cutting of certain branches of the vagus nerve [a mixed nerve running from the cranial cavity down to supply the pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal tract as far as the left colic (splenic) flexure]
    • performed with gastric surgery to reduce the amount of gastric acid produced and thus reduce the recurrence of ulcers
  137. cholangi/o/gram

    *think chol/angi/o, remember bile + vessel
    radiographic image of bile ducts
  138. cholangi/o/graphy

    *think chol/angi/o, remember bile + vessel
    • radiographic imaging of the bile ducts
    • after administration of contrast media to outline the ducts
  139. CT colon/o/graphy
    (computed tomography colonography)

    also called a virtual colonoscopy
    • radiographic imaging of the colon
    • using a CT scanner and software
  140. esophag/o/gram

    also called esopha/gram and
    barium swallow
    • radiographic image of the esophagus
    • barium is used as contrast media
  141. colon/o/scope
    instrument used for visual examination of the colon
  142. colon/o/scopy

    *this is done retrograde, scope can go much further/higher [sigmoid, descending, transverse and ascending colon] into the colon than a sigmoidoscopy [only sigmoid and descending colon]
    visual examination of the colon
  143. end/o/scope
    instrument used for visual examination within a hollow organ
  144. end/o/scopy
    visual examination within a hollow organ
  145. esophag/o/gastr/o/duoden/o/scopy (EGD)
    visual examination of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
  146. esophag/o/scopy
    visual examination of the esophagus
  147. gastr/o/scope
    instrument used for visual examination of the stomach
  148. proct/o/scope
    instrument used for visual examination of the rectum
  149. proct/o/scopy
    visual examination of the rectum
  150. sigmoid/o/scopy

    *this is done retrograde, scope does not go as far/high into the colon [only sigmoid and descending colon] as a colonoscopy [sigmoid,
    descending, transverse and ascending colon] would.
    visual examination of the sigmoid colon
  151. abdominal ultrasonography
    • process of recording images of internal organs using high-frequency sound waves produced by a transducer placed direction on the skin covering the abdominal cavity
    • images may be viewed on a monitor and/or recorded for later use
    • the size and structure of organs such as the aorta, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas can be visualized
    • liver cysts, abscesses, tumors, cholelithiasis, pancreatitis, and pancreatic tumors may be detected
    • may also be used to evaluate the kidneys and the portion of the aorta extending through the abdominal cavity
  152. barium enema (BE)

    also called lower GI series
    series of radiographic images taken of the large intestine after the contrast agent barium has been administered rectally
  153. endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography  (ERCP)
    • radiographic examination of the biliary ducts and pancreatic ducts with contrast media, fluoroscopy, and endoscopy
    • used to ealuate and diagnose obstructions, strictures, stone diseases, pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer
  154. upper GI (gastrointestinal) series
    series of radiographic images taken of the stomach and duodenum after the contrast agent barium has been swallowed
  155. endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)
    • a procedure using an endoscope fitted with an ultrasound probe that provides images of layers of the intestinal wall
    • used to detect tumors and cystic growths and for staging of malignant tumors
  156. fecal occult blood test (FOBT)

    also called guaiac test
    • a test to detect occult blood [blood in the feces in amounts too small to be seen but detectable by chemical tests] in feces
    • it is used to screen for colon cancer or polyps
    • occult blood refers to blood that is present but can only be detected by chemical testing
  157. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibodies test
    • a blood test to determine the presence of H pylori bacteria
    • the bacteria can be found in the lining of the stomach and can cause peptic ulcers
    • tests for H. pylori are also performed on biopsy specimens and by breath test
  158. abdomin/al
    pertaining to the abdomen
  159. an/al
    pertaining to the anus
  160. a/phagia
    without swallowing (the inability to)
  161. celi/ac
    pertaining to the abdomen
  162. colo/rect/al
    pertaining to the colon and rectum
  163. duoden/al
    pertaining to the duodenum
  164. dys/pepsia
    • difficult digestion
    • often used to describe GI symptoms, such as abdominal pain and bloating
  165. dys/phagia
    difficult swallowing
  166. enter/o/pathy
    disease of the intestine
  167. esophag/eal
    pertaining to the esophagus
  168. gastr/ic
    pertaining to the stomach
  169. gastr/o/enter/o/logist
    • physician who studies and treats diseases of the stomach and intestines
    • (GI tract and accessory organs)
  170. gastr/o/enter/o/logy
    • study of the stomach and intestines
    • a branch of medicine that deals with treating diseases of the GI tract and accessory organs
  171. gastr/o/malacia
    softening of the stomach
  172. gloss/o/pathy
    disease of the tongue
  173. ile/o/cec/al
    pertaining to the ileum and cecum
  174. nas/o/gastr/ic
    pertaining to the nose and stomach
  175. or/al
    pertaining to the mouth
  176. pancreat/ic
    pertaining to the pancreas
  177. periton/eal
    pertaining to the peritoneum
  178. proct/o/logist
    physician who studies and treats diseases of the rectum
  179. proct/o/logy
    • study of the rectum
    • a branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the rectum and anus
  180. rect/al
    pertaining to the rectum
  181. steat/o/rrhea
    • discharge of fat
    • excessive amount of fat in the stool, causing frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter
    • usually associated with the malabsorption of fat in conditions such as chronic pancreatitis and celiac disease
  182. steat/osis
    • abnormal condition of fat
    • increased fat at the cellular level, often affecting the liver
  183. stomat/itis

    *pay attention to this word, sounds like an inflammation of a stoma - which it is not!
    inflammation of the mouth (mucous membranes)
  184. stomat/o/gastr/ic
    pertaining to the mouth and stomach
  185. sub/lingu/al
    pertaining to under the tongue
  186. emesis

    also called vomiting
    expelling matter from the stomach through the mouth
  187. feces

    also called stool, or
    fecal matter
    waste from the digestive tract expelled through the rectum
  188. flatus
    gs in the digestive tract or expelled through the anus
  189. gastric lavage
    washing out of the stomach

    *pumping the stomach, often using activated charcoal
  190. gavage
    process of feeding  person through a nasogastric tube
  191. hematemesis
    vomiting of blood
  192. hematochezia
    passage of bloody feces
  193. malabsorption
    • impaired digestion, or
    • intestinal absorption of nutrients
  194. melena
    • black, tarry stool that contains digested blood;
    • usually a result of bleeding in the upper GI tract
  195. nausea
    urge to vomit
  196. peristalsis
    involuntary wave-like contractions that propel food along the digestive tract
  197. reflux
    • abnormal backward flow
    • in esophaeal reflus, the stomach contents flow back into the esophagus
  198. stoma
    • surgical opening between an organ and the surface of the body
    • such as the opening established in the abdominal wall by colostomy, ileostomy, or a similar operation
    • stoma may also refer to an opening created between body structures or between portions of the intestines
  199. vomiting

    also called emesis
    expelling matter from the stomach through the mouth
  200. two combining forms for colon:
    which words use col/o and which use colon/o?
    • Col/o
    • colectomy
    • colostomy
    • colorectal
    • Colon/o
    • colonoscope
    • colonoscopy
  201. two combining forms for mouth:
    which words use or/o and which use stomat/o?
    • or/o
    • oral
    • stomat/o
    • stomatitis
    • stomatogastric

    **do NOT confuse stoma with these words
  202. two combining forms for rectum:
    which words use proct/o and which use rect/o
    • proct/o
    • proctoptosis
    • proctoscope
    • proctoscopy
    • proctologist
    • proctology
    • recto/o
    • rectocele
    • rectal
  203. three combining words for abdomen (abdominal cavity:
    which words use abdomin/o, celi/o, or lapar/o?
    • abdomin/o
    • abdominocentesis
    • abdominoplasty
    • abdominal
    • celi/o
    • celiotomy
    • celiac
    • lapar/o
    • laparotomy
    • laparoscope
    • laparoscopy
  204. two combining forms for appendix:
    which words use append/o and which use appendic/o
    • append/o
    • appendectomy
    • appendic/o
    • appendicitis
  205. two combining forms for tongue:
    which words use gloss/o and which use lingu/o?
    • gloss/o
    • glossorrhaphy
    • glossopathy
    • lingu/o
    • sublingual
  206. compare and contrast:
    chol/e
    cholangi/o
    choledoch/o
    chol/e/cyst/o
    • chol/e              - gall, bile
    • cholangi/o        - bile duct
    • choledoch/o      - common bile duct
    • chol/e/cyst/o    - gallbladder

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