Social psych

Card Set Information

Social psych
2014-03-06 11:58:28
Exam 1
concepts and applications
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  1. Research methods: Objective vs. Subjective
    • subjectivity can see dissimilar things with same starting point
    • objectivity is better
  2. Research Process
    • 1. observe
    • 2. theory
    • 3. generate hypothesis
    • 4. verification (test)
    • 5. revise theory
    • 6. new hypothesis
  3. Verification
    • Correlational research: naturally occurring relationships among varibles
    • Positive: one variable goes up then so does the other
    • Negative: one variable goes up then the other goes down
    • data is NOT causal
  4. Experimental Research
    • Cause and effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors
    • Lab setting
    • example: beer goggles; make things more attractive
  5. Experimental Method: Developing Variables
    • IV: to be the CAUSE of a behavior and is a manipulated variable
    • DV: behavior OUTCOME of interest and is measured variable
  6. Logic of experimental design and lab studies
    • Vary cause variable = logic
    • measure same DV in both groups = lab
  7. Operational definition
    • how a researcher chooses to define the variable under investigation
    • (description for variables DV and IV)
    • example: IV= frustruation
    •               DV = violent acts
  8. Random assignment
    a method of assigning participants to various conditions of an experiment so that each participant in the experiment has an equal chance of being in any condition
  9. Experimental Method
    • interest in two causes:
    • another IV: = causation of behavior
    • Ex: attraction - age and alcohol
  10. IV
    • 4 conditions
    • vary levels
    • describing experimental research: based on a number of IV's in the study and number of levels of each IV
    • 2x2 design
    • How to describe design:
    • count how many numbers there are
    • look at the actual number to determine levals of IV
  11. internal validity
    • the extent to which conclusions can be drawn about the causal effects of the IV and DV
    • Lab setting : internal high and external low
  12. external validity
    • does the method generalize to other samples, research settings and procedures
    • operational def. and external validity
    • high in natural/field setting and low in lab setting
  13. Automatic cognition
    • also known as unconscious and implicit
    • automatic
    • quick
    • effortless
    • emotionally charged
    • governed by habit
    • difficult to control or change
    • involuntary
    • (people rely on this cognition)
    • example: stroop effect
  14. controlled cognition
    • also known as conscious and reason
    • deliberately controlled
    • slow
    • effortful
    • flexible
    • voluntary
    • (example and elephant and boy example)
  15. Heuristic
    a rule of thumb or "mental shortcut" used to make a judgement
  16. availibility heuristic
    • tendency to judge the likelihood of events by availibility in memory
    • example: media can create it through news
  17. representative heuristic
    the tendency to make judgements based on how well an event matches a prototype or a stereotype
  18. anchoring and adjustment heuristic
    • a mental shortcut whereby people use a number or value as a starting point and then adjust insufficiently from  this anchor
    • step#1: person starts with initial idea of answer
    • - maybe suggested from memory, or by something in environment
    • step#2: person adjusts away from initial anchor to arrive at final judgement
    • - explaining other peoples behavior
  19. attribution
    • automatic cognition
    • explanation for the cause of an event or behavior
    • dispositional attribution: persons disposition or traits attributing to behavior
    • situational attribution: attributing behavior to the environment
  20. fundamental attribution error
    the tendency to overestimate dispositioanl influences and underestimate situational influences for others behavior
  21. actor-observer bias
    for negative events we make dispositional attributions for others behavior but situational attributions for own behavior
  22. Moral reasoning (haidt, 2000)
    moral judgements are often the product of quick automatic judgements, which then give rise to slow conscious moral reasoning
  23. motivated cognition
    • people motivated to arrive at a particular conclusion often attempt to seek out info. that supports their desired beliefs, often able to provide reasonable justificaton
    • Scientific evidence exp: results- partipants also actually showed an increase or polarization in their initial death penalty attitude. participants only convinced by the science when it supported their initial views
  24. subliminal priming
    flashing images picked up by your brain
  25. immediate decision
    • make decision immediatly based on automatic cognition
    • controlled cognition: think carefully about aprtments then make decision
    • automatic cognition: particpants asked to perform a distraction task before making decision (automatic decision was more correct)
  26. automaticity
    • the influence that external stimuli an events inn one's immediate environment has on automatic cognition often without one's own knowledge
    • environment context can make certaion concepts accesible which often guides automatic cognition
  27. perception behavior link
    when environment makes representations/ concepts accesible via social perception, these will directly influence behavior (outside own awareness)
  28. priming
    • the activation of concepts or mental reps. in our mind via unobtriusive methods
    • examples: video(subliminal); hidden in paper task
  29. embodiment
    • cognition and feelings that can be influenced by your sensory experiences and bodily states
    • example: head movement and social cognition
    • - results: people in vertical nodding were more persuaded by the message than others
  30. enclothed cognition
    • the systematic influences that clothes have on a wearer's psychological prosesses
    • results: particpants in doctors coat performed better on attention task
  31. reason controlled cognition trumps automatic
    • time
    • high motivation to attend to situation
    • under self-reflection
    • motivation for accuracy
    • example: elephant= auto cog.; person= controlled cog
  32. self-fullfilling prophecy
    • an originally false social belief of another person(stereotype/expectation) that leads the other person to fulfill the originally false belief
    • three steps: 1. perciever has expectation(stereotype/schema)
    • example : pygmalion study about teachers perception of special kids who are late bloomers
  33. the meaning maintainance model
    • people have a need for meaning to percieve events through a prism that maintains order, certainty and value to their lives
    • 3 parts:
    • 1. people seek meaning to explain relations between events and themselves as well as between different events
    • 2. humans find it problematic to be robbed of meaning
    • 3. when meaning frameworks are threatened people will try to reaffirm alternative frameworks
    • Example: threat
    • -Result: pp in death threat condition reported more of a need for order and structure than pp in controlled condition/consistent with terror warnings and support for president
  34. self concept
    • the collection of self representations one has of oneslef
    • social identity: aspect of one's self concept connected to a group
    • personal identity: aspect of one's self unique to individual
    • working self concept: brought to mind by situation or personal needs (ppl can have many selves)
  35. looking glass self theory
    • we come to know ourselves by how others see us
    • Results (kenny and DePaulo): rather than observing others actual response to us, we rely more on our own theories about ourselves. 2. your self-def. is heavily influenced from what you think of you, rather that what they actually think
  36. self protection and enhancement
    motive to protect self-image as well as self enhance
  37. self affirmation theory
    • the overall goal of the self system is to protect an image of the self integrity and adequacy
    • ex: ppl want to feel whole most of the time
  38. self presentation
    • startegies ppl use to shape what others think of them.
    • based on scientific goals, such as desire to seen as likeable, competent, moral
    • ex: online dating
    • tendency to ficus on ourselves
  39. self serving bias
    • the tendency to percieve oneself favorably
    • tools to protect oneself and maintain self esteem
  40. better than average effect for attractiveness
    12 photos of oneself and stranger and everyone has to pick the other on a typical day
  41. unrealistic optimism
    many of us have unrealistically positive views of things that will happen to us
  42. false consensus
    the tendency to overestimate the commonality of ones undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors