Research final

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XQWCat
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265341
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Research final
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2014-05-05 08:33:40
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Fundamentals Animal Research
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Research,vet tech
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Fundamentals of animal research final
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  1. General timeline of animal use in research
    • Rapid growth after WWII
    • 1950s - no quality controls
    • education and training, scientific standards and care put into place
    • 1963 - NIH - guide for laboratory animal facilities and care
    • 1966 - USDA - laboratory animal welfare act
    • 1985 - PHS - animal welfare policy
  2. ethical debate for and against biomedical research
    organizations and parties involved
    • Animal rights vs animal welfare
    • PCRM (Physicians committee for responsible medicine) - moderate, alternatives
    • PETA (people for ethical treatment of animals) - nonviolent, passionate, media-savvy
    • ALF (animal liberation front) - terrorism and violence
  3. Animal rights tenet and parties
    • animal research is immoral and should cease
    • PCRM (Physicians committee for responsible medicine) - moderate, alternatives
    • PETA (people for ethical treatment of animals) - nonviolent, passionate, media-savvy
    • ALF (animal liberation front) - terrorism and violence
  4. animal welfare tenet and principles (8)
    • animal research is important but must obey highest moral/ethical responsibility for humane animal care and use
    • Principles of responsible use of animals: 1. optimize experiment design, 2. use non-animal alternatives, 3. avoid duplication, 4. minimize #, 5. good care = good results, 6. optimize health and environment, 7. professional competency and training, 8. avoid/minimize pain/distress
  5. Principles of responsible use of animals (animal welfare tenet) (8)
    • 1. optimize experiment design
    • 2. use non-animal alternatives
    • 3. avoid duplication
    • 4. minimize #
    • 5. good care = good results
    • 6. optimize health and environment
    • 7. professional competency and training
    • 8. avoid/minimize pain/distress
  6. 4 basic purposes of biomedical research and examples
    • 1. provide fundamental biological knowledge
    • 2. provide models for study of disease
    • 3. testing potential therapies, surgical procedures and medical devices
    • 4. testing new drugs for efficacy and safety and chemicals for potential toxicity
  7. basic purpose of laws and regulations
    • maintain animal facilities in accordance with all federal, state and local laws concerning animal research
    • Procides for clean, healthy animals and results in reliable, reproducible experiments
  8. USDA and Animal Welfare Act
    • United States Department of Agriculture (boss of research, institutions must register, supply reports available to public, unscheduled inspections)
    • (Laboratory) Animal Welfare Act - 1966 - all research species but mice/rats/birds
    • covers licensing, regulation of facility, husbandry, vet care, transportation, caging, housing, sanitation, food, water, enrichment, etc. (no stolen pets)
  9. NIH and PHS Policy
    • Public Health Service Policy - 1985 - established guidelines for care and treatment, institutions receiving funds must write assurance
    • National institute of health - Primary federal granting agency
  10. The Guide and 4 areas
    • "The Guide to the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals"
    • Institutional policies and responsibilities
    • animal housing, environment and management
    • Veterinary medical Care
    • Physical Plant
    • --premium authority to base care on, covers housing, training, needle size/volume, backup systems, triage, euthanasia, etc. With PHS covers all animals in research
  11. Basic facility structure
    • specially designed and operated to maintain controlled environment for experimental animals (reliable and reproducable)
    • good design with proper equipment for consistent day-to-day care
    • aka "vivarium", facilities separate from office/research labs
    • mega, macro and microenvironments
  12. mega environment
    • facility itself
    • location, design, arrangment, circulation, construction, architecture, facility monitoring, special housing and needs (light cycle, temp), security
  13. clean/dirty system
    • dual - one-way traffic flow, dif door for entrance and exit
    • Clean corridor to animals, then to dirty corridor.  May need to shower in or out
    • air pressure goes with you--clean to animal to dirty
    • single - properly directed air flow important--negative pressure inside, positive pressure outside
  14. barrier vs conventional housing systems
    • barrier: more restrictions to prevent pathogen introduction
    • ventilated or filtered racks, special air shower/shower/gowning procedures, husbandry increase (flow hoods, disinfection, irradiation/autoclave feed&bedding.  Barrier can be cage, room or facility.  
    • Conventional: no special precautions to reduce spread of pathogens, possibly filter tops on cages.
  15. positive vs. negative air flow
    • positive: rooms at higher pressure than corridor, open door causes air to flow out, prevents outside contaminants from getting in.  Surgical suites and barrier rooms
    • negative: rooms at lower pressure than corridor, open door causes air to flow in, keeps contaminants in room and out of corridor, quarantine and hazardous
  16. macro environment
    • room or secondary enclosure
    • temperature, humidity, ventilation, illumination, noise
  17. micro environment
    • primary enclosure (bedding, enrichment)
    • provide for behavioral and physiologic needs
    • provide social interaction and heirarchical development
    • provide clean, dry and safe area with adequate ventilation, food and water
    • permit visualization by personnel with minimal disturbance to animal
  18. IACUC
    • Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee
    • group of people appointed by CEO of facility, required by PHS and AWA
    • Oversee animal research programs at facility, make sure protocal being followed
    • Needs a vet with lab experience, scientist in lab medicine, non-scientist, non-affiliated member
    • Importance of problem, scientific merit, originality, excellence of design, suitable animal facilities, appropriateness of methods
  19. 3 Rs with examples
    • Reduction - correct number of animals 
    • Refinement - improve procedures and pain relieving techniques
    • Replacement - use of non-animal models whenever possible (computer or old study to predict and get a more accurate idea of EXACTLY what is necessary)
  20. personal protective equipment
    • appropriate protective clothing and equipment worn/provided, not worn outside of work area/facility
    • shoe covers, face shields, masks, gloves, earplugs, gowns, bonnets, glasses,
  21. zoonosis
    a disease communicable from animals to humans under natural conditions
  22. Bio Safety Levels
    • 1-4
    • 1 least hazardous
    • 4 most hazardous
  23. mouse behavior
    • four feet on floor, eyes and ears alert
    • sleep with head under body
    • nocturnal
    • constant grooming, smooth and glossy
    • barbering (bite fur/whiskers off subordinant mice)
    • fighting between group males
    • foragers, nesters, social, not aggressive (fear)
  24. mice in research
    • small, inexpensive, efficient breeders, short life span, bio well known and manipulated
    • 400 inbred strains (BALB/c, C3H, C57BL/6, DBA)
    • nude mice have immune deficiency
  25. mouse husbandry
    cages with other mice, feed/water ad libitum
  26. mice handling/restraint
    base of tail or back of neck
  27. mouse uses in research
    • genetic disorders (CF)
    • viral infections
    • infectious disease
    • reproduction/embryo development
    • preclinical safety  
    • Hairless: immune disease, cancer
  28. Injection for mice
    • IP (lower right quadrant, aspirate)
    • ID (25 gauge, 20 to 30 degrees, 0.1-0.2mL)
    • SQ
    • IV (tail vein, disinfect, hold off, needle at 30 degrees, remove and pressure)
  29. blood collection from mice
    • 1% of body weight/2 weeks max
    • retro-orbital (no lg veins, anesthesia, clot and ointment)
    • saphenous (small samples into capillary tube, no anesthesia, multiple in a day)
    • tail transection (DNA or lots of blood, controversial, anesthesia)
    • cardiac puncture (dangerous, anesthesia, usually just pre-euthanasia)
  30. rat behavior
    nocturnal, non-aggressive, inquisitive, easily trained, coprophagic behavior, males more aggresive than females but group-housed, PORPHYRIN: red substance in tears or saliva.  Excessive = illness
  31. rat handling
    • hold by tail for brief
    • whole body
    • "seatbelt" 
    • taco, tubes etc (devices)
  32. rat husbandry
    • group housing, strong lids on cages
    • feed and water ad libitum (automatic), need hard pellets (hypsodont)
    • foragers, social
    • small, dark, confined spaces
  33. rat breeding
    • sexual maturity at 65-110 days
    • 4-5 day estrus, postpartum extrus
    • 20-22 day estrus
    • 7-11 pups in litter
    • weaned at 21 days
  34. uses in research
    • toxiciology, teratological and carcinogens
    • good surgical models for transplants and vascular techniques
    • genetics, behavior/psych of learning, endocrine, nutrition
  35. rat strains
    • sprague dawley (ours)
    • zucker (huge)
    • long-evans
    • wistar
    • hairless
    • biobreeding
  36. experimental groups
    • experimental: receives what is being tested
    • control group: receives everything EXCEPT what is being tested
    • sham group: ??? Placebo?
  37. spontaneous disease model
    • naturally occurring genetic mutation/variations
    • seen in hundreds of strains/stocks with inherited disorders
    • ex: nude mouse (immune issues), BBrat (hypertension)
  38. variable
    any factor or condition that can change.  Can be planned or unplanned
  39. acceptable range of humidity in a mouse room
    30-70%
  40. Define and list components of each type of research environment (mega, macro, micro)
    • mega environment: Overall facility or building.  Includes security, building design, arrangement, etc.
    • macro environment: actual room and items inside.  Includes temperature, humidity, ventilation, illumination, noise
    • micro environment: primary enclosure and items in animal cage.  Includes bedding, enrichment, food water, etc.
  41. List 4 major goals of biomedical research and examples.
    • 1. To gain medical knowledge.  Necropsies are used to study organs, etc to help still-living patients
    • 2. models in study of disease.  To learn about hypertension we study hypertension in BB rats.
    • 3. To test new therapies, surgeries and equipment for tx.  A new insulin may be given to a dog with diabetes to see how it works.
    • 4. To determine toxicity of drugs and chemicals.  A new drug like a painkiller would be given to animal models first to determine effective and toxic doses.
  42. reddish material in tears and saliva of rats
    porphyrin
  43. 4 qualities that make mice good for research
    • inexpensive
    • efficient breeders
    • short lifespan and gestation
    • well-known biology/genome
  44. type of model: cancer cell implanted in mice
    diabetes in NOD mice
    • cancer cell implanted: induced model
    • diabetes in NOD mice: natural model
  45. why do rodents need hard pellets?
    hypsodont teeth, to prevent overgrowth.
  46. 2 natural behaviors in mice that can be helped by enrichment
    • foraging: hide fun things in their bedding
    • nesting: give material they can tear up and make nests out of.
  47. Gestation of mouse and rat is
    3 weeks
  48. 4 members of IACUC
    • scientist with lab experience
    • non-scientist
    • veterinarian with lab experience
    • non-affiliated member of community
  49. Definition of animals accoring to PHS
    Any live vertebrate
  50. define crontrol group in an experiment
    group that recieves everything except the thing being tested.
  51. barrier vs conentional facility
    • conventional facility is mostly natural, no extra safeguards against spread of pathogens (filter tops okay)
    • barrier facility has many preventative measures against spread of pathogens like irradiated bedding, changing cages under hood, ventilated racks, PPE with shower in/out requirements
  52. Which of the following warm-blooded vertebrates is NOT regulated by the Animal Welfare Act? 
    A) guinea pigs
    B) wild rats
    C) nude mice
    D) rabbits
    B) wild rats
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. define and examples for 3Rs of animal research
    • Reduction - use as few animals as possible to get viable, reliable, repeatable results.  In new dog food, use 8 animals not 400.  
    • Replacement - using non-animal models whenever possible.  Use computer model instead. 
    • Refinement - perfecting technique to get best and most humane use.  Practice surgery and injections on dummies first to minimize stress, pain and waste
  54. define a variable and give a research example
    a variable is anything in an experiment that can change, planned or unplanned.  Human error, like turning lights on too early, is a variable.
  55. mouse cage requirements
    • small cage = 5 mice, large cage = 10 mice.
    • wire-bottom or solid-bottom (preferred) shoebox cages, or microisolater cages with filter tops
    • clean solid bottom 1-3x/week
    • clean shelving 1x/month
    • change bedding regularly and disinfect room frequently enough to avoid dirt/odor/contamination
  56. rat cage requirements
    • single or group housing in cages similar to mouse cages. Tops must be secure to prevent escape.
    • shoebox cleaned 1-2x/week
    • shelving 1x/2weeks
    • drop pans 2x/week
  57. GLP
    • Good Laboratory Practice Standards.  
    • Requires additional SOPs, receipts and paperwork on equipment, bedding and feed
    • batch testing.
  58. FDA
    food and drug administration.  Requires strict GLPs
  59. animal model
    an imitation.  Describes a biological phenomenon that can be studied and in one or more aspects resembeles the phenomenon in humans
  60. exploratory animal model
    to understand a BIOLOGICAL MECHANISM
  61. explanatory animal model
    looking at a COMPLEX BIOLOGICAL CONDITION, can be normal or abnormal functions
  62. predictive animal model
    aim to discover and quantify a treatment
  63. fidelity
    extent to which the bio structure resembles the same structure in humans (high fidelity)
  64. homologous animal model
    symptoms and cause of conditions are the same
  65. isomorphic animal model
    symptoms are the same but cause is different
  66. partial animal model
    • most models
    • model does not mimic entire condition but is used to study a specific aspect or treatment
  67. induced model
    • healthy animals are given a condition
    • heart disease in canines
    • diabetes mellitus in mice
    • pathology and outcome of disease must be similar to target
  68. negative disease model
    • certain animal species are resistant to certain diseases or infections
    • we look at novel biological mechanisms that create the resistance
    • hamsters resistant to tick borne diseases
    • BALB/c mice resistant to cancers
  69. orphan disease model
    • found naturally in non-human species that is not in humans. 
    • bovine spongiform encephalopathy
    • feline leukemia virus
  70. genetically modified disease model
    • most important (genetic engineering getting better)
    • chemical induced mutations can also be used
    • Genetically cause an animal to not produce a hormone/protein.  (like induced, but pre-birth)
  71. CBC
    • complete CBC proveds minimal set of values, cheap, easy and reliable.  
    • Includes: hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, RBC count, WBC count, differential WBC count, platelet count (there are the most platelets)
  72. morphology of RBC
    • varies among species.  Largest in dog, smallest in goat
    • dog: biconcave disk
    • pig and ruminants: flattened disk
    • birds: ovals
    • categorized by arrangement, size, color, shape, inclusions, blood parasites, maturity (reticulocytes)
  73. morphology of WBC (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils)
    • neutrophils: irregular elongated or segmented nucleus, clear cytoplasm
    • lymphocytes: round, smooth-surfaced cells, slightly indented nucleus, very little blue cytoplasm
    • monocytes: large, kidney bean or elongated/lobulated nucleus, blue-gray cytoplasm with vacuoles
    • eosinophils: red granules in cytoplasm
    • basophils: blue cytoplasm, nucleus like monocyte
  74. morphology of platelets
    round, oval or rod-shaped , very small.
  75. blood chemistry
    • eval of chems in blood (blood, plasma or serum)
    • plasma protein assays, total protein, albumin, globulin, fibrinogen, electrolite assay, enzymology, (hepatocellular - ALT, AST, SD, GD) (cholestasis - AP, GGT), bilirubin, kidney assays, BUN, Creatinine, pancreas assay, creatinine kinase, LDH, cholesterol
  76. organoleptic analysis
    1st analysis.  Use sense organs to analyze (color, odor, etc.)
  77. Endpoint and kinetic methods of enzyme assay
    • help b/c enzyme levels are low, hard to measure.  
    • endpoint: end product of enzyme reaction forms a color change.  More intense is more
    • kinetic: rate of reaction in progress, tests with concentration over time.
  78. urinalysis chemistry
    pH, protein, glucose, ketones, bile pigments, blood, nitrite
  79. urinalysis sediment
    cells, microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, protozoa), urinary casts, fat, crystals, parasite ova, uroliths, contaminating artifacts
  80. ELISA
    • enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
    • enzyme-substrate complex produces a color, intensity shows concentration.
    • can be antigen detection system or antibody detection system.
  81. microbiology
    • isolating and IDing organisms or microbes, usually cultured on agar.  ID'd by size, shape and staining reaction
    • incubated for 24-48h, checked for antibiotic reactions, fungi take longer.
  82. immune response
    • non-specific: skin, physical and chemical components in nasopharynx, gut, lungs, genitourinary tract, commensal bacteria (phagocytosis-monocytes)
    • specific: responds to specific antigens with humoral and cellular response (lymphocyte B-cells). Immunoglobulin (Ig) or antibodies (G,M,A,D,E). T-cells become memories and effectors
  83. square knot
    easiest and most reliable for most suture materials.
  84. surgeons's or Friction knot
    more secure than a square knot, used to tie monofilament synthetic
  85. absorbable suture
    • plain or chromic
    • processed strands of highly purified collagen.  
    • synthetic include vicryl, polyglactin, monocryl, polydioxanone)
  86. nonabsorbable suture
    • silk or synthetic
    • nylon (ethilion, nurolon)
    • polyester (coated or uncoated)
    • cotton, linen, coated natural or synthetic where coating only adds thickness, not strength
    • metal wire of monofilament or multifilament construction
  87. ligatures
    suture tied around vessel to acclude lumen.  Can also effect homostasis or close off structure to prevent leakage
  88. types of suture technique
    • continuous (running) - looped, knotted at one end
    • over and over running - diagonal, like sewing
    • simple interrupted
    • interrupted vertical mattress
    • interrupted horizontal mattress
    • deep
  89. basic steps for surgical prep
    • plan, sanitize area with flidox, alcide or nolvasan (no need for dedicated site)
    • anesthetize, remove hair, pick up loose hair
    • alternate betadine and alcohol or chlorhex and alcohol, circular motion, 3x, end with iodophor, not too wet or hypothermia
    • open pack, don't touch, scrub, sterile gloves, drape, organize, begin
  90. steps for sterile gloving
    • lift one glove by turned-down cuff
    • pull on hand with rotating motion, don't touch outside
    • place gloved fingers underneath other cuff
    • place on ungloved hand
    • pull over cuff of lab coat
    • slip fingers under cuff of first glove to pull over lap coat
  91. signs of pain in rabbits, mice and rats
    • decreased food/water
    • weight loss
    • hiding
    • gnawing at limbs
    • rapid or open-mouth breathing
    • abdominal breathing
    • grinding teeth
    • biting/growling/aggression
    • increased/decreased mvmt
    • unkempt appearance
    • abnormal posture
    • restless sleep
    • tearing, porphyria, lack of blinking reflex
    • dilated pupils
    • muscle rigidity or lack of tone
    • dehydration/skin tenting/sunken eyes
    • twitching, trembling, tremor
    • vocalization
    • redness or swelling around site
    • increased salivation
  92. signs of pain that rats don't show
    signs of pain that mice don't show
    signs of pain that rabbits don't show
    • rats: no restless sleep, dilated pupils or increased salivation
    • mice: no grinding teetch, biting/growling/aggression, restless sleep, tearing, lack of blink reflex, dilated pupils or increased salivation
    • rabbits: show all signs
  93. post-op care
    • keep recovering patient warm, face out of bedding
    • post-op analgesia/antibiotics/warmed fluids/oral glucose if necessary
    • return to cage once awake
    • monitor for several days, weigh daily (some analgesics depress appetite)
    • continue analgesia/antibiotics if necessary (assess pain BID), monitor food intake if possible
    • SOFTER, MORE PALATABLE, ACCESSABLE DIET
    • watch for dehydration (tenting)
    • suture removal at 10-14 days
  94. types of anesthesia
    • inhalant (vaporizers, scavenger/hood/downdraft table 6-8 inches up, so for small induction chamber)
    • injectable (often controlled, dose according to weight, eye lube if ketamine)
    • local anesthetic
  95. preparation of necropsy/histology samples
    • fixation - kill and harden tissues. Put in fix after removal.  formalin, absolute alcohol, zenker's fluid, bouin's fluid, carnoy's fluid.  10x more preservative than tissue by weight.  
    • dehydrate, cut, embed in paraffin (not miscible with water)
    • mount on embedding ring, cut with microtome
    • attach to slides
    • stain and/or counterstain
  96. most common lab rabbit
    New Zealand White
  97. Uses of rabbits in biomedical research
    • serum antibody production
    • drug screening
    • pyrogen testing
    • athrosclerosis studies
    • (vitamin E, vitamin A, hypercholesteremia, atropinesterase ezyme, resistant to atropine)
  98. handling/restraint of rabbits
    • scruff with one hand and support hind with other, hide face in elbow.  Restraint helps calm.
    • NEVER grab ears ALWAYS support/control hind end, can break back.  
    • mechanical restraints like bag or class device
  99. rabbit breeding
    • polygamous, take doe to buck's cage to prevent fighting, breed buck 5x/week
    • no true estrous cycle, but rhythmic period of acceptance
    • INDUCED OVULATION
    • need nest box for KITS (blind and naked)
    • parturition is called KINDLING
  100. rabbit behavior
    • mild tempered, active, curious, escapers
    • sensitive to noise
    • most active at twilight
    • hop or stand on hind legs, stretch on side or stomach with head on floor
    • TOENAILS NEED TRIMMING
    • race around cage and cower in corner when scared
    • EAT NIGHT FECES to recycle protein and B complex
  101. blood taking techniques in rabbits
    • ear vein.  Also good for IV injection
    • Saphenous?
  102. cage change and cleaning in rabbits
    • cages with indirect bedding (in pan under cage) and appropriate-sized grid bottom.  
    • Clean every 2 weeks
    • clean pans 2-3x/week
    • clean filters frequently due to shedding
  103. dog uses in research
    • experimental physiology, pharmacology, surgical studies originally
    • heart and orthopedic
  104. dog handling
    • different for dif animals.  Usually gentle.  
    • never scruff, hold under chest and rump, lateral or sternal, muzzles
  105. dog behavior
    • need daily contact
    • submissive: crouched, move sideways, head low, ears down, body low, tail between legs but wagging
    • confident: direct approach, head high, eyes bright, ears alert, body at full height, tail erect and wagging
    • ill/frightened dogs: isolated in cage, curled up with feet under body, unresponsive, tremble, growl, snarl
  106. swine uses in research
    • cardiovascular system
    • exercise physiology
    • nutrition
    • surgery
    • atherosclerosis
    • diabetes
    • transplantation
    • Domestic: acute studes where maturity and development not a factor
    • miniature:chronic/long-term studies, related to adult metabolism or physiology
  107. swine behavior
    • very intelligent, social, responsive to close human contact if handled and housed properly. 
    • excited at feeding time, squeal.  Sleep between feedings
    • basketballs and toys good enrichment for single-housed pigs.  
    • fighting in groups, bite wounds, possible separation
  108. sheep and goats in research
    • hardy, prone to few natural diseases
    • don't house together (goats pick on sheep)
    • docile, easy to handle, choices in housing
  109. sheep handling
    • never grap by wool
    • hold like dog for cephalic or pres against wall and hold head
  110. sheep uses in research
    reproduction, fetal development, cardiovascular research
  111. sheep behavior
    • gregarious, timid, nervous, flock together for protection/defense.
    • spend most of day grazing or ruminating, deviation indicates illness
  112. goats uses in research
    placental and fetal surgery studies, orthopedic procedures, antibody production
  113. handling and restraint of goats
    • chin hold and back into corner
    • collars, neck chains, halters
    • horns may be grasped near base if horned
    • hold collar up, press withers down 
    • hold collar and lift front leg up
    • straddle shoulders, press with knees
  114. goat behavior
    • active and inquisitive
    • agile, adept at jumping and climbing, can jump up to 7 feet
    • tame and social when handled often
    • more aggressive and destructive than sheep
    • mature males are unpredictable, esp in breeding season.  Often urinated on selves, use scent glands to mark territory.  Females or castrated males recommended in research
    • changes in habits indicate disease
  115. NHP handling and restraint
    • watch for zoonosis
    • CHEMICAL RESTRAINT (ketamine/atropine or telazol), equipment, training with positive reinforcement
    • secure arms behind animal's back, wear mask, glove and eye protection.  
    • squeeze cage, transfer cage, pole and collar, net.
  116. NHP behavior
    • many comfortable positions, sleep sitting with head bowed or lying on side, walk on 2 or 4 limbs.
    • inquisitive, will grab anything
    • body language and behavior patterns specific to species
    • structured social system depending on natural habitats, variation with species
    • grooming
  117. necropsy
    • postmortem examination, diagnostic tool aided by history, clinical signs and findings (histopath).  
    • Organization is key.  
    • If not immediate, place in a bag, label and refrigerate, DO NOT FREEZE (damages for histopath)
  118. guinea pig facts
    • aka cavies
    • hypsodont
    • keep cool, humidity steady
    • cecum, need vit C
  119. guinea pig uses in research
    • nutrition
    • immune system function
    • infectious disease studies
    • reproductive biology (long gestation)
    • safety testing (GP antigenicity=anaphylaxis and closed-patch sensitivity testing
  120. guinea pig handling
    • docile, easy to restrain
    • hold hand over shoulders, thumb and forefingers under front legs, hold hind end with other hand
  121. guinea pig behavior
    • don't jump or climb, easily startled, LOUD
    • barbering
    • in distress: shrieks, lick bite or shake hurting spot, look unkempt, hunch, pace
  122. hamster facts
    cheek pouches, hide food, bedding, etc.  Can hide pups in cheek pouch when frightened
  123. hamster uses in research
    • cheek pouches
    • diabetes
    • cancer studies
    • cytogenic (genetic) studies
    • hibernation
    • dental caries (cavities)
  124. hamster handling
    • make sure awake !!  
    • scruff like a mouse (don't restrict breathing) or scoop up with cupped hands, or let crawl into small container.
  125. hamster behavior
    • most nocturnal of lab rodents
    • bite if startled
    • females dominate males, are more aggressive.  Large dominate small.  Once dominance estabished, all get along
    • do not move from cage to cage
    • hibernate at 5 degrees C
  126. gerbils uses in research
    stroke and epilepsy
  127. gerbil restraint
    • pick up by base of tail (tip is fragile, if comes off must be amputated)
    • pick up in cupped hands
    • restrain like mouse
  128. gerbil behavior
    • clean, docile, curious
    • efficient water use--desert
    • low urine output = little odor
    • maintain cyclic activity (high activity then rest)
    • during high activity will burrow, dig, scratch, groom one another.  Happens in dark and light cycles.
    • rapid rhythmic stomping as sexual or warning
    • 20% of gerbils get seizures, esp with loud noises or handling.  Freeze, twitch, kick.

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