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goal-directed thinking in which the person utilizes pathways thinking (perceived capacity to find routes to desired goals) and agency thinking (requisite motivations to use those routes).
Hope similar to and different from optimism
Optimism is the capacity for expecting good things to happen rather than bad. Hope is taking action on finding routes that lead to good things happening/achieving goals.
Hope's childhood antecedents
no hereditary contributions, entirely learned cognitive set about goal-directed thinking. established through parenting, stronger parent-child attachment the stronger the hope. Components of hope are established by age 2. Childhood traumas decreases levels of hope.
Hope's neurobiological correlates
Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) stops an action that results in punishment. Behavioral Activation System (BAS) encourages action that results in rewards. Behavioral Facilitation System (BFS) drives incentive-seeking actions of organisms.
Hope's research findings
outcomes have been predicted in academics (high Hope scores lead to better college GPAs), sports (high Hope scores lead to superior performance of athletes), physical health, adjustment (high Hope scores lead to elevated happiness, satisfaction, positive emotions, getting along with others etc), and psychotherapy.
Measurements of Hope
Children's Hope Scale (CHS) 3 part agency thinking, 3 part pathways thinking.State Hope Scale (SHS) 3 part agency and 3 part pathways of the here and now goal directed thinking.
Looking in on a person's life whether it be from the past, in the present, or for the future.
Cultures affect on Temporal Orientation
From a western perspective we attempt to make no changes from the past to keep those who are in power, in power. From an eastern perspective we look at the past for enlightenment and learn from our ancestors to make for a better present and future.
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