Card Set Information

2014-03-07 01:10:24

For class
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  1. Metabolic Water
    • Water formed by cells as a metabolic by product
    • Made by body
  2. Dialysis
    • Blood going through the kidney once
    • Blood circulation goes through the kidney 300 times a day
  3. Diurectics
    Substances that increase urine output
  4. Calcium
    • Most plentiful mineral in human body
    • 99% is in bones and teeth
    • 1% is in extracellular fluid
    • Uses 1% first
  5. Sodium
    • Major positively charged ion in extracellular fluid
    • Conducts nerve impulses
    • Involved in transporting glucose and amino acids in cells
  6. Hypertension
    • Condition characterized by persistently elevated blood pressure
    • Affects ~30% of American adults
    • Increases risk of Heart disease, stroke, kidney failure
  7. Systolic Pressure
    Maximum blood pressure within arteries when ventricles of the heart contract
  8. Diastolic Pressure
    Pressure when ventricles relax between contractions
  9. Potassium
    • Major positively charged ion in intracellular fluid
    • Needed for nerve impulses, contracting muscles, and kidney function
    • Potassium-rich diets may reduce blood pressure
  10. Magnesium
    • Particles in >300 chemical reactions
    • Regulation of muscle and nerve function
    • Maintenance of strong bones
    • Strengthening the immune system
  11. Hemoglobin
    Iron-containing protein in RBC that transports oxygen to tissues and some CO2 away from tissues
  12. Myoglobin
    Iron-containing protein in muscle cells that controls oxygen uptake from RBC
  13. Zinc
    • A component of about 100 enzymes 
    • Needed for Wound healing, Normal of taste and smell, DNA synthesis, Immune function
  14. Iodide
    • Required for normal thyroid function and production of thyroid hormone
    • Thyroid hormone controls metabolic rate
    • In U.S. some table salt is fortified with iodide to prevent deficiency
  15. Selenium
    • Many are antioxidants
    • May reduce risk of certain cancers
    • Keshan's disease
  16. Osteoporosis
    • Factors influencing the risk of osteoporosis include:
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Genetics
    • Nutrition
    • Physical Activity
  17. Cortical Bone (Compact Bone)
    Very dense tissue making up 80% of skeleton
  18. Trabecular Bone (Spongy bone)
    • "Scaffolding" on the inside of bones: supports cortical bones & makes up 20% of the skeleton
    • Osteoporosis occurs here
  19. Bone Growth
    Increase in bone size; completed by age 14 in girls and 17 in guys
  20. Bone Modeling
    Shaping of bone; completed by early adulthood
  21. Bone Remodeling
    Reshaping of bone
  22. Resorption
    • Bone remodeling
    • Surface of bones is broken down
  23. Osteoclasts
    • Bone remodeling
    • Cells that erode the surface of bones
  24. Menopause
    Leads to increased bone loss due to a lack of estrogen
  25. Most occur at 50 yrs
    Wrist or forearm fracture
  26. More likely at 55 to 75 yrs
    Spinal vertebrae fracture
  27. Vitamin
    • Complex organic compound that is not made by the body - or made in amounts that are enough to maintain good health
    • Causes a deficiency disorder when it is missing from the diet
  28. Fat Soluble - A, D, E, & K
    • Associated with lipids in foods and the body
    • Do not dissolve in water, stored in the body and may be toxic
  29. Water Soluble - B & C
    • Dissolve in watery components of foods and the body
    • Excreted in urine
    • Most are not stored to a major extent, generally non toxic
  30. Antioxidant
    A substance that gives up electrons to stabilize free radicals
  31. Vitamin Absorption
    • Most absorption occur in small intestine (absorption is not 100% efficient)
    • Absorption increase when more of vitamins is needed
  32. Vitamin A
    • Retinol/Beta-carotene/Carotenoids
    • Normal vision and reproduction
    • Cellular growth
    • Immune system activity
    • Epithelial cell production and maintenance
  33. Keratin
    • Tough protein found in hair nails and outermost layers of skin
    • Excess: Skin becomes rough and bumpy
    • Inner eyelid cells that normally secrete mucus to protect cornea become keratinized
  34. Vitamin A Toxicity
    • May lead to liver damage
    • Yellowing of skin due to excessive beta-carotene intake
  35. Vitamin D
    • Metabolism of calcium & phosphorus
    • Production & maintenance of healthy bones
  36. Vitamin E
    • Major fat-soluble antioxidant found in cell (protects polyunsaturated fatty acids)
    • Improves vitamin A absorption
    • Maintains nervous system and immune system function
  37. Vitamin E Toxicity
    Excess may interfere with vitamin K's role in blood clotting
  38. Vitamin K Deficiency
    May occur in newborns or people with impaired liver functions or absorption, on long term antibiotic therapy
  39. Thiamin
    • Part of coenzyme involved in release of energy from carbohydrates
    • Metabolism of certain amino acids
    • Synthesis of neurotransmitters
  40. Beriberi
    • Thiamin deficiencies
    • Weak, have poor muscular coordination, and may develop cardiovascular problems and edema.
  41. Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
    Typically seen in alcoholics, because alcohol decreases absorption and increases excretion
  42. Vitamin C
    • Not part of coenzyme
    • Collagen synthesis (protein that gives strength to connective tissues)
    • Antioxidant activity
  43. Vitamin C Toxicity
    Kidney stones, particularly in susceptible persons
  44. Superfoods
    • Have a high concentration of critical nutrients 
    • Low in calories
    • Reverse the effects of the major diseases
  45. Acai
    • Berry from rainforests of Brazil
    • Tastes like berries and c hocolate
    • High in fiber
  46. Arona Berries
    • High Antioxident
    • Helps with how fast you recover after a workout
  47. Beans and Lentils
    • EFAs (omega 3)
    • High in Fiber
    • High in Protein
    • Low glycemic index
    • Cheap
  48. Oats
    • High in fiber and protein - good for weight loss
    • Phytoestrogens - Act as estrogen mimic, help with lower breast cancer for women
    • Protease inhibitors
    • Cholesterol lowering
    • Inexpensive and available
  49. Broccoli
    • Vitamin C
    • Carotenoids
    • Vitamin K
    • Folate
  50. Cinnamon
    • Lowered blood glucose
    • Lowered triglycerides 
    • Lowered LDLs and cholesterol
    • Antibacterial - E.Coli
    • Makes us think better
  51. Turmeric
    • Medicinal properties (India)
    • Improves cardiovascular health
    • Anxiety and stress - Help with these
  52. Chia seeds
    • Helps with blood pressure, cholesterol, and Inflammation
    • Iron and calcium
    • Omega 3s
  53. Leeks
    • Cardiovascular health- raise HDL and lower LDL
    • Powerful antibacterial
    • Lutein
    • Manganese, Vitamins A, C, and K
  54. Avocado
    • Fat Omega 3 and monounsaturated
    • Good fat
    • LDL/HDL
  55. Salmon
    • Omega-3s
    • Eye and cardiovascular health
    • Protects skin
    • Fights depression
    • Vitamin D
  56. Guava
    • South American fruit
    • Vitamin C
    • Lycopene in skin
    • Potassium
    • Some Lycopene and fiber is lost in juices
  57. Walnuts
    • Omega 3s
    • Cancer prevention
    • NuVal- Highest NuVal "nut" score in the stores
  58. Garlic
    • Sulfur compounds - Allicin family
    • Allicin Family - A lot of cruciferous veggies
    • Good source of B6 and Vitamin C
  59. Sweet Potatoes
    • Carotenoids
    • Vitamin C and A
    • Potassium
    • Fiber
    • Loses a lot of Vitamin A during frying process
  60. Hot Peppers
    • Antioxidant
    • Capsaicin - Make it hot
  61. Black Rice
    • Iron and fiber
    • Low glycemic index
    • Cardiovascular health (clears arteries)
    • Anti-inflammatory
  62. Dark Chocolate
    • Inhibit blood clots (atherosclerosis)
    • Reduces chronic inflammation
    • Cacao Levels = how much dark chocolate is in it, the higher the cacao level, the healthier it is
  63. Fat-free mass
    • Body water
    • Mineral rich tissues
    • Protein rich tissues
  64. Total body fat
    • Adipose tissue
    • Essential fat in cell membranes, certain bones, and nervous tissue
  65. Subcutaneous fat
    • Sub = under
    • Cutaneous = skin
    • Helps insulate
    • Protects muscles & bones from injury
  66. Visceral fat
    Form protective structure under abdominal muscles and over stomach & intestines
  67. Bioelectrical Impedance
    • Measure conduction of a weak electrical current through the body
    • Problem: Method can be reliable if body hydration status is normal
    • Scientific data about accuracy of devices designed for home use are lacking
  68. Anabolic reactions
    Require energy
  69. Catabolic reactions
    Releases energy
  70. Sateity
    Sense that enough food was eaten
  71. Ghrelin
    Hormone, secreted mainly by stomach that stimulates eating behavior
  72. Leptin
    Hormone, secreted by adipose cells that reduces hunger and inhibits fat storage in the body
  73. Aerobic Exercise
    • Sustained, rhythmic contractions of large muscle groups
    • Raises heart rate giving the heart an effective workout
  74. Resistance Exercise
    • Activities that increase muscle mass and strength
    • Resistance exercises also increase bone mass
  75. Energy Metabolism
    • Cells obtain energy through a series of chemical reactions
    • First catabolism of glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, or alcohol
  76. Anaerobic Catabolism
    • Without oxygen
    • Overdoing, go into this mode
    • Sloppy and inefficient
    • Is the backup
  77. Aerobic Catabolism
    • With oxygen
    • If oxygen is available, pyruvate can enter aerobic respiration pathways
  78. Aerobic Capacity
    • Maximal oxygen intake during vigorous physical exertion (VO2 max)
    • The point that you cannot carry on normal conversation because of increased breathing rate.
  79. Carbohydrate (Glycogen) Loading
    • Manipulating physical activity and dietary patterns, a few days before an event.
    • Goal is to increase muscle glycogen stores