Soci exam 2

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Soci exam 2
2014-03-16 12:32:43

soc 2
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  1. The pattern relationship between people that persist over time --- A way of explaining framework that surrounds society
    social structure
  2. What is the importance of social structure
    sets limits and directs our behavior
  3. The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that
    characterize a group and are passed
    from 1 generation to the next
  4. Based on income, education, and occupational prestige
    Social class
  5. The "positions" that an individual occupies
    Social status
  6. All of the positions that an individual occupies
    Status set
  7. Positions an individual inherits or receives involuntary
    Ascribed status
  8. Example of ascribe status
    social class, age, race, gender
  9. Positions that are earned, accomplished, or involved some effort
    achieved status
  10. Example of achieved status
    airline pilot, prisoner (not always an upward move)
  11. Signs that people use to show their positions
    Status symbols
  12. Example of status symbols
    • living in a certain neighborhood, wedding ring
    • bumper stickers, central a/c
    • *used at all levels
  13. Status that cuts across the other status another individual occupies
    Master status
  14. Example of master status .
    • male/female
    • physical attributes --- small/tall, handicap, fat
    • major event happenings - lotto winner
  15. The behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status
  16. Example of Roles
    • **you act differently based on your status at the time
    • friends , family, mom, boyfriend
  17. An individual _________ a status but ________ a role.
    • occupies
    • plays
  18. People who regularly and concisely interact with one another and typically share similar values, norms, and expectations
  19. Example of groups
    doctors, military, social activity, sports, or family
  20. A society's standard ways of meeting its basic need
    Social institutions
  21. Why are groups important?
    Shape the idea of who we think we are
  22. Members have something in common / they believe what they have in common makes a difference
    Social Groups
  23. Example of social groups
    • Boyscouts - groups that stands for patriotism
    • Religion - belief those ideas are important to peoples life
  24. the largest group that is studied (most complex) people who share a culture and a territory
  25. Least Complex / Oldest Group - smallest of all groups/ nomadic, most of the time these groups deplete area land food game and water in a few weeks then move on
    Hunters & Gathers
  26. 10,000 years ago - in reference to obtaining of animals and plants , groups were able to keep food in a harvest situtuation
    Domestication revolution
  27. semi permanent residence (semi nomads) raised animals to slaughter and harvested crops - land over used and contanimanted water they would be force to relocate // have divisions of labor
    Pastoral & Horticultural
  28. the in of the plow - 5,000 - 6,000 years ago
    agricultural revolution
  29. cities begin to develop, first recorded history / had an upper class and peasant with clergy and nobles ---there was no middle class!
    agricultural societies
  30. 1765 the steam engine was used for the first time to run machinery
    had a middle class /bigger cities
    skills and demands
    industrial revolution
  31. marked by the invention of the micro chip
    information and technology  
    moved away from production - towards service industustries
    postindustrial information revolution
  32. The first country to have more than 50% of its workforce employed in service industries
  33. individuals who temporary share the same physical space but do not have a sense of belonging
    • Aggregate
    • elevator, lines, airplanes
  34. collection of people who have similar characteristics
    • category
    • college students, lefthanders tall etc
  35. long term face to face relationships that have an emotional bond
    • primary
    • family long life friends
  36. less permanent and they are not marked with the same intensity or intimacy
    • secondary
    • bands classrooms
  37. groups you feel loyal too - the closer you are the more you are antagonist toward the opposite group
    in group
  38. groups we feel antagonism toward
    • out groups
    • college teams, politics
  39. a group we use as standards to evaluate ourselves - we may not belong to group but we identify or want to identify with it
    • reference groups
    • dress speak style
  40. how groups affect individual and how it effects groups
    group dynamics
  41. 4 things that are looked at when group dynamics are studied
    • group size
    • leadership
    • conformity
    • decision making
  42. as group size ___________ , intensity _________ and stability ____________.
    increase decrease and increase
  43. a narrowing of thought by a group of people leading to the perception that there is only correct answer and to suggest alternative becomes a sign of disloyalty
    • Group think
    • NASA Columbia disaster
    • Hitler
  44. Hard to define - any violation of a norm/ not the act but the reaction
  45. act of deviance that has been written into law
  46. norms = ?
  47. make social life possible by making behavior predictable
  48. all efforts to insure conformity to the norms
    Social control
  49. 2 main types of social control?
    informal and formal
  50. interpersonal pressure that control our behavior
    we control our actions b/c of reaction to certain situation
    • informal social control
    • peer pressure , media, society
  51. when informal methods don't work -= formal interventions
    • formal social control
    • parents , law, any type of authority
  52. 3 forms of formal social control
    • prevention
    • deterrence
    • reform/resocialization
  53. an attempt to reduce opportunities/ prevent deviance act
    • prevention
    • locking vehicles, curfew, security
  54. use of punishment to deter people from deviance
    • deterrence
    • spanking laps
  55. idea you can resocialize a person/ an effort to change a person's socialization
  56. Not always successful form of formal social control
  57. The extent which is social control is met/conformity is met/the degree in which something goes as planned
    social order
  58. to embarrass someone of their behavior so they don't do it again (used as a form of deterrence)
  59. Shaming has a new comeback .....
    YOUTUBE / Social Media
  60. you are placed out of groups as improper or bad, negative status symbol (form of shaming)
    degradation ceremony
  61. The proportion of people who are rearrested after serviing time in prison or on probation
    recidivism rate
  62. Gibbs Theory of Deterrence - To be an effective deterrent , punishment must be perceived as :
    rapid and swift, certain, severe
  63. the most typical of crimes that occur in low class neighborhoods
    street crime
  64. crimes committed by people who are respectable and have a high social status - what makes the crime is the criminal
  65. white collar crime
  66. Example of white collar crimes
    bribery embezzlement fraud