Psych

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krisyjohn
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Psych
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2014-03-07 00:24:35
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  1. Allport's
    definition of personality reads as follows: "Personality is the dynamic
    organization within the individual of those ________ that determine his
    characteristic behavior and thought."
    Psychophysical System
  2. According
    to a continuity theory of personality, personality
    • Change
    • quantitatively
  3. Allport
    suggests that the construct of personal disposition is necessary to
    • express
    • the unique individuality of each person
  4. In discontinuity theories, growth
    • is
    • manifested by radical changes in the structure of personality.
  5. The
    number of central dispositions necessary to describe an individual normally
    ranges between
    • five
    • and ten.
  6. According
    to Allport, the propriate function of ___________ refers to one's sense of
    possession and valuing of others
    self-extension
  7. In
    the nature versus nurture controversy, trait and temperament theories of
    personality maintain that
    • heredity
    • and the environment both affect each other in the development of personality
  8. According
    to Cattell, the study of source traits is important because
    • source
    • traits allow us to make behavioral predictions
  9. Which
    step in the process of factor analysis is NOT subjective
    • Extracting
    • the factor
  10. Syntality
    is Cattell's term for dimensions that permit us to assess the personality of
    • groups
    • and institutions
  11. What
    is the acronym for the Big Five?
    OCEAN
  12. Which
    of the following assessment tools was developed to measure the Big Five?
    NEO-PI-R
  13. Which
    of the following is true according to Five Factor Theory?
    • One's
    • basic tendency for openness is biologically rooted and stable, but how one
    • characteristically expresses it can change over time
  14. Adler's
    "social interest," Horney's "moving toward," and Erikson's
    "basic trust" can all be seen as aspects of which factor?
    Agreeableness
  15. Immanuel Kant organized the four temperaments
    according to ________ and ________.
    feelings; Activity
  16. Trait theories differ from type theories in that trait theories involve
    Continuous Dimensions
  17. Eysenck was discussing _________ when he described " . . . people whose emotions
    are labile, strong, and easily aroused; they are moody, touchy . . ."
    Neuroticism
  18. According to Eysenck's theory of arousal, all other things being equal, which one of the
    following should outperform the others on a very difficult task?
    Nagib,an emotionally stable extravert
  19. The phenotype refers to
    an individual's observable appearance.
  20. Eysenck's theory suggests that psychopathic disorders are most likely to develop among
    which of the following?
    Neurotic Extraverts
  21. Source traits (16)
    • outgoing – reserved
    • more intelligent – less intelligent
    • high ego strength – low ego strength
    • assertive – humble
    • happy-go-lucky – sober
    • strong conscience – lack of internal standards
    • adventuresome – shy
    • tough-minded – tender-minded
    • trusting – suspicious
    • imaginative – practical
    • shrewd – forthright
    • apprehensive – self-assured
    • experimental – conservative
    • group-dependent – self-sufficient
    • casual – controlled
    • relaxed – tense
  22. Surface traits are
    clusters of overt behavior responses that appear to go together such as integrity, honesty
  23. R=f(P,S)
    • R=response
    • f= function
    • P=person
    • S=stimuli
  24. Terms to describe the BIG FIVE
    Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiouness
  25. Existentialism and psychoanalysis…
    • both try to understand anxiety, despair and
    • alienation
  26. In
    psychology, the existential approach
    • focuses on the human being as he or she is
    • emerging and becoming
  27. May
    believes that the central problem we face in the second half of the 20th
    century is
    a pervasive feeling of powerlessness
  28. May believes that in our contemporary culture, anxiety
    • is intensified by interpersonal isolation and
    • alienation
  29. May believes that it is important for us to
    • discover and affirm a new set of values that
    • might include previous values
  30. An
    example of an existential dichotomy is
    the inevitability of death
  31. It is largely because of the efforts of Carl Rogers that the_______has re-emerged
    as a useful construct for understanding personality.
    self
  32. May's stage of creative consciousness of self…
    • cuts through the dichotomy of subjectivity and
    • objectivity
  33. May
    believes that the central task of the psychotherapist is to
    understand the client/patient's mode of being
  34. Recent
    research related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, including Diener, Oishi, &
    Lucas (2003) and Hanley & Abell (2002), has emphasized modifications of
    Maslow's original theory to emphasize
    relatedness and cultural variability
  35. In
    Maslow's hierarchy, which needs are tended to immediately after the
    physiological needs have been met?
    Safety needs
  36. Maslow's definition of the self-actualized person might be criticized for being
    subjective.
  37. In
    Japan and in China it is believed that personality is best rooted in
    • being able to define oneself in terms of the
    • group.
  38. When
    studying an event, a phenomenologist would focus on
    an individual's perception of the event
  39. In Rogers's theory, the ________ refers to the person as a
    whole, whereas the ________ refers to the person as he or she is perceived.
    organism; self
  40. Rogers differed from Freud in his belief that human emotions
    need to be experienced.
  41. A
    state of congruence exists when
    • the self-concept and the organism largely
    • coincide.
  42. Rogers
    used a technique in which a patient would be given a hundred cards containing
    descriptive words or phrases and asked to arrange them in piles according to
    the degree to which they reflected the patient's personality. What is the name
    of this technique?
    The Q-sort
  43. Transpersonal
    psychology deals with issues involving
    religion and spirituality.
  44. Which
    of the following would be an example of a B-need
    The need to use one's talents
  45. Allport and Murray believed that personality is very complex and urged that its study should be
    interdisciplinary and idiographic
  46. Allport defined personality as the ___ ____ within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought
    dynamic organization
  47. What did Allport term as the central experience of self-awareness that a person has in growing and moving foward
    proprium
  48. How many needs did Murray identify
    20
  49. Which one of the following isn NOT an example of a press according to Murray?
    Self-esteem
  50. Allport paved the way for what other psychological approach
    Humanistic
  51. According to the Five Factor Model, dutifulness, self-discipline, competence, and order arell all facets of which personality trait
    conscientiousness
  52. in the Five Factor Theory, which of the following is not one of the tree factors influencing self-concept?
    External influences
  53. According to evolutionary psychology, altruistic behavior is explained by
    inclusive fitness
  54. Least influence on Eysenck
    Rogers
  55. Eysenck differed from other trait theorist because he
    used experimental studies to identify biological causes
  56. Which of the following was NOT eysenck's super factors?
    Consciousness-unconsciousness
  57. According to Eysenck's research, the reticular activating system is related to what personality trait?
    extraversion-introversion
  58. according to Eysenck, behavioral personality equals the environment times...
    constitutional personality
  59. continuity
    theories of personality, which are closed and admit little change
  60. discontinuity
    theories that are open and provide for extensive growth
  61. concept of personality as a hypothetical construct
    is currently unobservable because it cannot be measured empirically
  62. Common traits
    is a hypothetical construct that permits us to compare individuals within a given culture
  63. Cardinal trait
    a trait that is so pervasive that almost every behavior is influenced by it.
  64. Perseverative functional autonomy
    refers to acts or behaviors that are repeated even though they may have lost their original function.
  65. A-B-C theory
    underlying rational emotive behavior therapy, when a highly charged emotional consequence (C) (such as being very frightened) follows a significant activating event (A) (such as being chased by a large dog as a child), A may seem to but actually does not cause C. Instead, in subsequent situations, emotional consequences are largely created by B, the individual’s belief system.
  66. Rational emotive behavior therapy or REBT
    • first primarily cognitive behavioral therapy
    • focus on rational thinking instead of irrational thinking
  67. Ellis believe we used four fundamental processes
    perception, movement, thinking, and emotions.
  68. Schemas
    are cognitive structures that consist of an individual's fundamental core beliefs and assumptions about how the world operates.
  69. automatic thought
    are involuntarily and unintentional
  70. Cognitive distortions appear during psychological distress
    • arbitrary inference- drawing a specific conclusion without supporting evidence or even in the face of contradictory evidence
    • selective abstraction- conceptualizing a situation on the basis of a detail taken out of context and ignoring all other possible explanations
    • Overgeneralization- abstracting a general rule from one or two isolated incidents and applying it too broadly
    • Magnification and minimization- seeing an event as more significant or less significant than it actually is
    • Personalization- attributing external events to oneself without evidence of connection
    • Dichotomous thinking- categorizing situations in extremes
  71. depressed individual has a negative vies of themselves, the world, and the future. These perceptions form the
    Cognitive Triad

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