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definition of personality reads as follows: "Personality is the dynamic
organization within the individual of those ________ that determine his
characteristic behavior and thought."
to a continuity theory of personality, personality
suggests that the construct of personal disposition is necessary to
- the unique individuality of each person
In discontinuity theories, growth
- manifested by radical changes in the structure of personality.
number of central dispositions necessary to describe an individual normally
to Allport, the propriate function of ___________ refers to one's sense of
possession and valuing of others
the nature versus nurture controversy, trait and temperament theories of
personality maintain that
- and the environment both affect each other in the development of personality
to Cattell, the study of source traits is important because
- traits allow us to make behavioral predictions
step in the process of factor analysis is NOT subjective
is Cattell's term for dimensions that permit us to assess the personality of
is the acronym for the Big Five?
of the following assessment tools was developed to measure the Big Five?
of the following is true according to Five Factor Theory?
- basic tendency for openness is biologically rooted and stable, but how one
- characteristically expresses it can change over time
"social interest," Horney's "moving toward," and Erikson's
"basic trust" can all be seen as aspects of which factor?
Immanuel Kant organized the four temperaments
according to ________ and ________.
Trait theories differ from type theories in that trait theories involve
Eysenck was discussing _________ when he described " . . . people whose emotions
are labile, strong, and easily aroused; they are moody, touchy . . ."
According to Eysenck's theory of arousal, all other things being equal, which one of the
following should outperform the others on a very difficult task?
Nagib,an emotionally stable extravert
The phenotype refers to
an individual's observable appearance.
Eysenck's theory suggests that psychopathic disorders are most likely to develop among
which of the following?
Source traits (16)
- outgoing – reserved
- more intelligent – less intelligent
- high ego strength – low ego strength
- assertive – humble
- happy-go-lucky – sober
- strong conscience – lack of internal standards
- adventuresome – shy
- tough-minded – tender-minded
- trusting – suspicious
- imaginative – practical
- shrewd – forthright
- apprehensive – self-assured
- experimental – conservative
- group-dependent – self-sufficient
- casual – controlled
- relaxed – tense
Surface traits are
clusters of overt behavior responses that appear to go together such as integrity, honesty
- f= function
Terms to describe the BIG FIVE
Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiouness
Existentialism and psychoanalysis…
- both try to understand anxiety, despair and
psychology, the existential approach
- focuses on the human being as he or she is
- emerging and becoming
believes that the central problem we face in the second half of the 20th
a pervasive feeling of powerlessness
May believes that in our contemporary culture, anxiety
- is intensified by interpersonal isolation and
May believes that it is important for us to
- discover and affirm a new set of values that
- might include previous values
example of an existential dichotomy is
the inevitability of death
It is largely because of the efforts of Carl Rogers that the_______has re-emerged
as a useful construct for understanding personality.
May's stage of creative consciousness of self…
- cuts through the dichotomy of subjectivity and
believes that the central task of the psychotherapist is to
understand the client/patient's mode of being
research related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, including Diener, Oishi, &
Lucas (2003) and Hanley & Abell (2002), has emphasized modifications of
Maslow's original theory to emphasize
relatedness and cultural variability
Maslow's hierarchy, which needs are tended to immediately after the
physiological needs have been met?
Maslow's definition of the self-actualized person might be criticized for being
Japan and in China it is believed that personality is best rooted in
- being able to define oneself in terms of the
studying an event, a phenomenologist would focus on
an individual's perception of the event
In Rogers's theory, the ________ refers to the person as a
whole, whereas the ________ refers to the person as he or she is perceived.
Rogers differed from Freud in his belief that human emotions
need to be experienced.
state of congruence exists when
- the self-concept and the organism largely
used a technique in which a patient would be given a hundred cards containing
descriptive words or phrases and asked to arrange them in piles according to
the degree to which they reflected the patient's personality. What is the name
of this technique?
psychology deals with issues involving
religion and spirituality.
of the following would be an example of a B-need
The need to use one's talents
Allport and Murray believed that personality is very complex and urged that its study should be
interdisciplinary and idiographic
Allport defined personality as the ___ ____ within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought
What did Allport term as the central experience of self-awareness that a person has in growing and moving foward
How many needs did Murray identify
Which one of the following isn NOT an example of a press according to Murray?
Allport paved the way for what other psychological approach
According to the Five Factor Model, dutifulness, self-discipline, competence, and order arell all facets of which personality trait
in the Five Factor Theory, which of the following is not one of the tree factors influencing self-concept?
According to evolutionary psychology, altruistic behavior is explained by
Least influence on Eysenck
Eysenck differed from other trait theorist because he
used experimental studies to identify biological causes
Which of the following was NOT eysenck's super factors?
According to Eysenck's research, the reticular activating system is related to what personality trait?
according to Eysenck, behavioral personality equals the environment times...
theories of personality, which are closed and admit little change
theories that are open and provide for extensive growth
concept of personality as a hypothetical construct
is currently unobservable because it cannot be measured empirically
is a hypothetical construct that permits us to compare individuals within a given culture
a trait that is so pervasive that almost every behavior is influenced by it.
Perseverative functional autonomy
refers to acts or behaviors that are repeated even though they may have lost their original function.
underlying rational emotive behavior therapy, when a highly charged emotional consequence (C) (such as being very frightened) follows a significant activating event (A) (such as being chased by a large dog as a child), A may seem to but actually does not cause C. Instead, in subsequent situations, emotional consequences are largely created by B, the individual’s belief system.
Rational emotive behavior therapy or REBT
- first primarily cognitive behavioral therapy
- focus on rational thinking instead of irrational thinking
Ellis believe we used four fundamental processes
perception, movement, thinking, and emotions.
are cognitive structures that consist of an individual's fundamental core beliefs and assumptions about how the world operates.
are involuntarily and unintentional
Cognitive distortions appear during psychological distress
- arbitrary inference- drawing a specific conclusion without supporting evidence or even in the face of contradictory evidence
- selective abstraction- conceptualizing a situation on the basis of a detail taken out of context and ignoring all other possible explanations
- Overgeneralization- abstracting a general rule from one or two isolated incidents and applying it too broadly
- Magnification and minimization- seeing an event as more significant or less significant than it actually is
- Personalization- attributing external events to oneself without evidence of connection
- Dichotomous thinking- categorizing situations in extremes
depressed individual has a negative vies of themselves, the world, and the future. These perceptions form the