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All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
- sensory impressions
- motor activities
- senses an actions through looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping.object permanence develops
- stranger anxiety
- Pretend play
- During the child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
- During which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
- Conservation skills develop (da cups)
- mathematical ability develops
- People begin to think logically about abstract concepts
awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived
(concrete) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
Harry Harlow studies on attachment
Contradicts attachment derives from an association with nourishment.
A newly emerging ability to evaluate people as familiar and possibly threatening helps protect babies 8 months and older.
An emotional tie with another person, shown in young children bu their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
Erik Erickson theory
Each stage of life has it's own psychological task, a crisis that needs resolution.
Our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the past of our answer to "Who am!?" that comes from our group memberships.
In Erickson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
For some people in the modern cultures a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Competence vs. Inferiority
Adolesense physical changes
- puberty ( period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing )
- cognitive development
- formal operational stage morals reasoning
- Identity vs. Role confusion
- Sense of self who am I?
- if were able to resolve role reversion.
- Intimacy vs. Isolation
- Forming close relationships
- intimacy develops after an identity is established
- independence from parents
- relating to parents as other adults
Gererativity vs. Stagnation
Late Adulthood/later life
- Integrity vs. Despair
- Feeling life that life has been meaningful and worthwhile without regrets
Peak during early aduthood
Later adulthood 40+ physical changes
- menopause (females/ pmf)
- reaction times slow
- sensory abilities change
- normal memory loss
- some older people will suffer from Alzheimer (loss of cognitive abilities depletion of acetylcholine in cortex)
Usually a happy place
Later Adulthood: Social life
- 2 major aspects of adult life
- work and relationships
- older age = higher life satisfaction
- as we age our self-concept becomes more positive