a typeface commissioned by Louis the XIV for the French government. Based on a grid of 2,304 squares, each letter had increased contrast between thick and thin strokes, sharp horizontal serifs, and an even balance to each letter form.
Fournier le Jeune
typefounder who pioneered the standardization of type sizes; he conceived the concept of “type families".
a craftsman who specializes in casting metal type
a metalsmithing shop where metal shapes are cast (formed and reproduced)
small unit of measuring the height of a type font. 6 points equal one “line" 12 lines = “pounce" out roughly 1 inch currently 72 points =1 inch
a group of type font variations with different heights and tend to be visually compatible and easily mixed
a font that only prints the outer contour of a letter and leaves the center of the letterforms open
a customized type arrangement that announces the author of a letter.
William Caslon, British engraver whose typeface design dominated British printing and therefore early American graphic design (Caslon typeface was used to print the Declaration of Independence.)
John Baskerville, British artist bookmaker and design innovator who broke prevailing rules of design; his typefaces had a new lightness and a smoother transition from major stroke to serifs.
is paper with textual quality of horizontal lines left by the wires from the papermaking mold.
diagrams which visually represent complex statistical data (introduced by Scottish author and scientist Williams Playfair
a chart that shows growth across time via a line moving across a grid.
is a chart with rectangular bars that show comparative growth.
is a circular chart divided into sections, showing proportions with in a whole.
movable or interchangeable parts.
refers to the distance between the baseline and the mean line in a typeface (the height of the main shapes of the lower case letters).
visionary English poet and artist (1757-1827) who self -published his books of poetry.
executed with a single color: Blake's monochrome etchings were hand- colored
an engraver's carving tool; its rakes parallel lines across the surface to give and even texture and tone.