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What are the Goals of Research in Behavioral Neuroscience ?
- Assess how different brain areas control behavior
- Determine which cells and chemicals are involved in behavior
- Measure activity of neurons in conjunction with behavior
- CONVERGING OPERATIONS
What is Histology ?
To prepare nervous tissue for examination under the microscope
What is Perfusion ?
Flush blood from animal's body using SALINE
What is Fixation ?
- Chemicals(FORMALIN) stabilize tissue to prevent disintegration after death
- FORMALIN-> not hard enough to slice through
- -> liquid form of FERMALDIHIDE
What does Embedding and Slicing include ?
- Embed brain in WAX or other supporting medium (FREEZE)
- Slice very thin and mount each slice on a microscope slide
What is the NISSL Staining ?
- 1800's Nissl discovered METHYLENE BLUE would stain CELL BODIES
- One of the most common structural stains
- Dyes have changed; CRYSYL VIOLET & THIONIN
- THOININ popular outside of the brain
What is MYELIN Stains ?
- Colors that sheaths that surround the neurons so fibre bundles are observed
- Tell axons, no direction of pathway & not all neurons are myelinated
What is GOLGI Staining ?
- Extremely important staining method
- Developed by Golgi
- Chemical reaction results in SOME neurons stained
- Allows morphology of whole neuron to be seen
- 2-5% of all neurons are stained, allows us to see the shape of neuron
In Neuroanatomical Tracing Techniques what does ANTEROGADE mean ?
- Tracing where axons project away from an area
In Neuroanatomical Tracing Techniques what does RETROGRADE mean ?
- Tracing where axons are projecting into an area
How does Neuroanatomical Tracing Techniques occur ?
Sucked by axon terminal & back to the dendrites
What is CONTRAST X-RAYS ?
- Beam of X-rays passed through an object onto a photographic plate
- X-ray useless for visualizing the brain
- CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAM
What is a PNEUMOENCEPHALOGRAM ?
- Involves temporarily replacing some of CSF with air
- Ventricles & Fissures visible
- Can tell us relative size = tumor locations
- Bigger ventricles = less brain (altimers, schizophrenia)
What is a CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAM ?
- Visualizes cerebral circulatory system
- Infuse radio-opaque dye through a cerebral artery
- See blood vessels supplied
- Can tell us blockage = stroke
What is COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY (CT scans) ?
- X-ray beam and detector rotate around individual
- Info in 2D image
- Disadvantage: 8 horizontal pictures
- Series of 2D images can be combined to created 3D image
- Go around the whole brain to see inside of the brain & location of tumor
What is MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) ?
- Measures waves emitted by HYDROGEN ATOMS when they are placed in magnetic field
- Neural structures different densities of H ATOMS -> White & Grey Matter, CSF
What are advantages to MRI ?
- High spatial resolution
- Gives complete sagital &/or different planes & views
- Non-invasive (no radiation)
What are disadvantages to MRI ?
- Very loud
- Takes a lot of time (45 min) = claustrophobia
- Very expensive
- Only structure NOT function
- rojectile effect
What is POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET) ?
- Highlights active areas of brain
How does PET work ?
- Patient injected with radiolabelled glucose (2-DG) -> Active brain areas use more glucose -> PET localizes glucose using decay
- Glucose is what the brain uses for energy
What is a FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (fMRI) ?
- Main tool used by Cognitive Neuroscience
- Images increase in oxygen (blood) flow to active brain areas
- measures Blood Oxygenated Level Dependent Signal (BOLD)
What are the Advantages of fMRI ?
- Nothing injected
- Provides structural and functional info
- Spatial resolution better
- Changes can be measured in real time
What are Disadvantages of fMRI ?
Correlation Research - Can be sure of a cause & effect relationship
What is Psychophysiological Recording Methods ?
Recording physiological activity from the body surface
How do you record brain activity ?
How do you record Somatic Nervous System Activity ?
- Muscle Tension (EMG)
- Eye Movements (EOG)
How do you record Autonomic Nervous System Activity ?
- Skin Conductance
- Cardio-Vascular Activity
What is an EEG ?
- A measure of the average electrical activity of the brain
- Some EEG wave forms associated with: Specific state of consciousness, Cerebral Pathology (Epilepsy, brain tumor)
- Event-Related Potential: measuring electrical patterns in response to external stimuli (ERP)
What is TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETI STIMULATION (TMS) ?
- NOT a measure of activity - ALTERS neural activity
- Applies a brief, strong magnetic field that alters neural activity
- Either activates or deactivates brain structures depending on stimulation parameters
- Only good for surface of the brain
What do Invasive Physiological Research Methods include ?
- Electrical stimulation
- Invasive recording methods
- All require stereotaxic sugery
What is Sterotaxic Surgery ?
- Used to position experimental devices within the brain
- Sterotaxic Atlas: provides coordinates for locating structures within the brain
- Point of Reference: BREGMA ->where the bones of the skull infuse
- Stereotaxic Instrument: Holds head steady & guides device to be inserted
- Expose the skull
What are the steps in Lesion Studies ?
Lesion area of the brain -> What behaviors are disrupted ? -> Determine function of lesioned area
What is Aspiration Lesions ?
- Suction cortical tissue
- Vacuum & such brain tissue out
What is Radio-frequency Lesions ?
- Heat destroys tissue
- Cheap & easy
- Destroys everything
- Not selective
What is Exictotoxic Lesions ?
Selectively destroys cell bodies
What is Knife Cuts ?
May damage surrounding area
What is Cryogenic Blockade ?
- Neurons cooled till they stop firing; "reversible lesion"
- Deactivate the area for a short period of time
What is Sham Lesions ?
- Controls for effect of surgery
- Always compare lesion animals to Sham lesion animals
What happens when you lesion the Septum ?
- Direct connection to Hippocampus (Spacial memory)
- Does not remember it has children
- Can not gather her nest or pups due to problems in spatial perception
What happens with Electrical Stimulation ?
- Electrical Stimulation: activates a structure
- Effects tend to be opposite to those seen if structure is lesioned
- Behavioural response depends on location of electroed, parameters of current and test environment
What did Walter Penfield accomplish ?
- Find where in the brain a woman smelt burnt toast
- Mapped out pre-central gyris & post central gyris
What is Invasive Electrophysiological Recording Methods ?
- Intacellular unit recording: Membrane potential of a neuron
- Extracellular unit recording: Firing of a neuron
- Muliple-unit recording: Firing of many neuronns
What is Gene Knockout ?
Organisms lacking a particular gene of interest (Time of birth)
What is Antisense drugs ?
block expression of the gene of interest (Go in & block expression)
What are Transgenic Mice ?
- Mice containing genetic material of another species (Insert genes, regulate expression)
- Useful for many animal models of disease
What does an Open field apparatus help measure ?
Anxiety: Thigmotaxic behavior
What does an Elevated Plus Maze help test ?
- 2 arms have sides and 2 do not
- Time spent in open vs. closed arms
- The use of anti-anxiety drugs - are they going to spend more time in open or closed arm ?
What does Pavlovian Condition consist of ?
- Pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus
- Pavolv's dogs
- associated sound with food
What does Operant Conditioning consist of ?
Reinforcement and punishment
What is the Radial Arm Maze ?
- Measures spacial ability & foraging behavior
- Rat must remember which arms are baited vs. visited
- Distinguishes between STM & LTM
What is the Morris Water Maze ?
- Test spatial abilities
- Rat must find hidden platform in an opaque pool
What is the Conditioned Taste Aversion ? (teacher has PhD)
- Biological prepredness
- Toxin defense mechanism
- pair novel taste & malaise = avoidance of taste in future
- In lab use LiCl to make them feel nausies. Whatever food they had before injection they will never go near it
- Defie the law of temporal continuetiy, 12 hours ago
What principles of learning does Conditioned Taste Aversion challenge ?
- Single trial learning
- Temporal Contiguity
- Equipotentiality - only illness & taste
What are the Clinical Implications of Conditioned Taste Aversion ?
- Chemotherapy - develop these especially with children
- Also work in reverse (Buckleys)
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