Biopsychology

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Author:
avarricc
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265432
Filename:
Biopsychology
Updated:
2014-03-07 12:41:25
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Chapter Five
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The Research Methods of Biopsychology
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  1. What are the Goals of Research in Behavioral Neuroscience ?
    • Assess how different brain areas control behavior
    • Determine which cells and chemicals are involved in behavior
    • Measure activity of neurons in conjunction with behavior
    • CONVERGING OPERATIONS
  2. What is Histology ?
    To prepare nervous tissue for examination under the microscope
  3. What is Perfusion ?
    Flush blood from animal's body using SALINE
  4. What is Fixation ?
    • Chemicals(FORMALIN) stabilize tissue to prevent disintegration after death
    • FORMALIN-> not hard enough to slice through
    •               -> liquid form of FERMALDIHIDE
  5. What does Embedding and Slicing include ?
    • Embed brain in WAX or other supporting medium (FREEZE)
    • Slice very thin and mount each slice on a microscope slide
  6. What is the NISSL Staining ?
    • 1800's Nissl discovered METHYLENE BLUE would stain CELL BODIES
    • One of the most common structural stains
    • Dyes have changed; CRYSYL VIOLET & THIONIN
    • THOININ popular outside of the brain
  7. What is MYELIN Stains ?
    • Colors that sheaths that surround the neurons so fibre bundles are observed
    • WEIGERT
    • Tell axons, no direction of pathway & not all neurons are myelinated
  8. What is GOLGI Staining ?
    • Extremely important staining method
    • Developed by Golgi
    • Chemical reaction results in SOME neurons stained
    • Allows morphology of whole neuron to be seen
    • 2-5% of all neurons are stained, allows us to see the shape of neuron
  9. In Neuroanatomical Tracing Techniques what does ANTEROGADE mean ?
    • FORWARD
    • Tracing where axons project away from an area
  10. In Neuroanatomical Tracing Techniques what does RETROGRADE mean ?
    • BACKWARD
    • Tracing where axons are projecting into an area
  11. How does Neuroanatomical Tracing Techniques occur ?
    Sucked by axon terminal & back to the dendrites
  12. What is CONTRAST X-RAYS ?
    • Beam of X-rays passed through an object onto a photographic plate
    • X-ray useless for visualizing the brain
    • PNEUMOENCEPHALOGRAM
    • CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAM
  13. What is a PNEUMOENCEPHALOGRAM ?
    • Involves temporarily replacing some of CSF with air
    • Ventricles & Fissures visible
    • Can tell us relative size = tumor locations
    • Bigger ventricles = less brain (altimers, schizophrenia)
  14. What is a CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAM ?
    • Visualizes cerebral circulatory system
    • Infuse radio-opaque dye through a cerebral artery
    • See blood vessels supplied
    • Can tell us blockage = stroke
    • Tumor
  15. What is COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY (CT scans) ?
    • X-ray beam and detector rotate around individual
    • Info in 2D image
    • Disadvantage: 8 horizontal pictures
    • Series of 2D images can be combined to created 3D image
    • Go around the whole brain to see inside of the brain & location of tumor

  16. CT SCANS
  17. What is MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) ?
    • Measures waves emitted by HYDROGEN ATOMS when they are placed in magnetic field
    • Neural structures different densities of H ATOMS -> White & Grey Matter, CSF
  18. What are advantages to MRI ?
    • High spatial resolution
    • Gives complete sagital &/or different planes & views
    • Non-invasive (no radiation)
  19. What are disadvantages to MRI ?
    • Very loud
    • Takes a lot of time (45 min) = claustrophobia
    • Very expensive
    • Only structure NOT function
    • rojectile effect
  20. What is POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET) ?
    • Highlights active areas of brain
    • Function
  21. How does PET work ?
    • Patient injected with radiolabelled glucose (2-DG) -> Active brain areas use more glucose -> PET localizes glucose using decay
    • Glucose is what the brain uses for energy
  22. What is a FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (fMRI) ?
    • Main tool used by Cognitive Neuroscience
    • Images increase in oxygen (blood) flow to active brain areas
    • measures Blood Oxygenated Level Dependent Signal (BOLD)
  23. What are the Advantages of fMRI ?
    • Nothing injected
    • Provides structural and functional info
    • Spatial resolution better
    • Changes can be measured in real time
  24. What are Disadvantages of fMRI ?
    Correlation Research - Can be sure of a cause & effect relationship
  25. What is Psychophysiological Recording Methods ?
    Recording physiological activity from the body surface
  26. How do you record brain activity ?
    Scalp EEG
  27. How do you record Somatic Nervous System Activity ?
    • Muscle Tension (EMG)
    • Eye Movements (EOG)
  28. How do you record Autonomic Nervous System Activity ?
    • Skin Conductance
    • Cardio-Vascular Activity
  29. What is an EEG ?
    • A measure of the average electrical activity of the brain
    • Some EEG wave forms associated with: Specific state of consciousness, Cerebral Pathology (Epilepsy, brain tumor)
    • Event-Related Potential: measuring electrical patterns in response to external stimuli (ERP)
  30. What is TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETI STIMULATION (TMS) ?
    • NOT a measure of activity - ALTERS neural activity
    • Applies a brief, strong magnetic field that alters neural activity
    • Either activates or deactivates brain structures depending on stimulation parameters
    • Only good for surface of the brain
  31. What do Invasive Physiological Research Methods include ?
    • Lesioning
    • Electrical stimulation
    • Invasive recording methods
    • All require stereotaxic sugery
  32. What is Sterotaxic Surgery ?
    • Used to position experimental devices within the brain
    • Sterotaxic Atlas: provides coordinates for locating structures within the brain
    • Point of Reference: BREGMA ->where the bones of the skull infuse
    • Stereotaxic Instrument: Holds head steady & guides device to be inserted
    • Expose the skull
  33. What are the steps in Lesion Studies ?
    Lesion area of the brain -> What behaviors are disrupted ? -> Determine function of lesioned area
  34. What is Aspiration Lesions ?
    • Suction cortical tissue
    • Vacuum & such brain tissue out
  35. What is Radio-frequency Lesions ?
    • Heat destroys tissue
    • Cheap & easy
    • Destroys everything
    • Not selective
  36. What is Exictotoxic Lesions ?
    Selectively destroys cell bodies
  37. What is Knife Cuts ?
    May damage surrounding area
  38. What is Cryogenic Blockade ?
    • Neurons cooled till they stop firing; "reversible lesion"
    • Deactivate the area for a short period of time
  39. What is Sham Lesions ?
    • Controls for effect of surgery
    • Always compare lesion animals to Sham lesion animals
  40. What happens when you lesion the Septum ?
    • Direct connection to Hippocampus (Spacial memory)
    • Does not remember it has children
    • Can not gather her nest or pups due to problems in spatial perception
  41. What happens with Electrical Stimulation ?
    • Electrical Stimulation: activates a structure
    • Effects tend to be opposite to those seen if structure is lesioned
    • Behavioural response depends on location of electroed, parameters of current and test environment
  42. What did Walter Penfield accomplish ?
    • Find where in the brain a woman smelt burnt toast
    • Mapped out pre-central gyris & post central gyris
  43. What is Invasive Electrophysiological Recording Methods ?
    • Intacellular unit recording: Membrane potential of a neuron
    • Extracellular unit recording: Firing of a neuron
    • Muliple-unit recording: Firing of many neuronns
  44. What is Gene Knockout ?
    Organisms lacking a particular gene of interest (Time of birth)
  45. What is Antisense drugs ?
    block expression of the gene of interest (Go in & block expression)
  46. What are Transgenic Mice ?
    • Mice containing genetic material of another species (Insert genes, regulate expression)
    • Useful for many animal models of disease
  47. What does an Open field apparatus help measure ?
    Anxiety: Thigmotaxic behavior
  48. What does an Elevated Plus Maze help test ?
    • Anxiety
    • 2 arms have sides and 2 do not
    • Time spent in open vs. closed arms
    • The use of anti-anxiety drugs - are they going to spend more time in open or closed arm ?
  49. What does Pavlovian Condition consist of ?
    • Pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus
    • Pavolv's dogs
    • associated sound with food
  50. What does Operant Conditioning consist of ?
    Reinforcement and punishment
  51. What is the Radial Arm Maze ?
    • Measures spacial ability & foraging behavior
    • Rat must remember which arms are baited vs. visited
    • Distinguishes between STM & LTM
  52. What is the Morris Water Maze ?
    • Test spatial abilities
    • Rat must find hidden platform in an opaque pool
  53. What is the Conditioned Taste Aversion ? (teacher has PhD)
    • Biological prepredness
    • Toxin defense mechanism
    • pair novel taste & malaise = avoidance of taste in future
    • In lab use LiCl to make them feel nausies. Whatever food they had before injection they will never go near it
    • Defie the law of temporal continuetiy, 12 hours ago
  54. What principles of learning does Conditioned Taste Aversion challenge ?
    • Single trial learning
    • Temporal Contiguity
    • Equipotentiality  - only illness & taste
  55. What are the Clinical Implications of Conditioned Taste Aversion ?
    • Chemotherapy - develop these especially with children
    • Also work in reverse (Buckleys)

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