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Plasma = ?
- Proteins, H2O and other.
- Is 55% of whole blood
- essential for carrying the cellular elements of blood through circulation
Proteins = ?
- Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogen, Prothrombin
- *presence of protein in the urine indicates abnormal renal function
- *increased in Addison's disease, Crohn's disease, and chronic infection
- *decreased in edema, cirrhosis, and burns
Formed Elements = ?
- Platelets, WBC's, and RBC's
- 45% of whole blood
Platelets = ?
- produced by bone marrow
- 4-6.2 millionfunctions in Hg transport (oxygen delivery)
- *formed by red bone marrow
- *lifespan is 120 days
- removed by liver ,spleen, and bone marrow
Leukocytes = ?
- Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils
- aid in immune system
- 12-16.5 g/dL
- vehicle of transporting oxygen and CO2
- measures the mass of the RBCs
- 50-175 mcg/dL
- found with hemoglobin and helps transport oxygen from lungs to tissues and aids in CO2 to lungs.
- 20-36 seconds
- used to monitor the effectiveness of heparin therapy and test for intrinsic factor deficiencies
- > 90 secs bleeding precaution!
- 9.5-11.8 seconds
- used to check for warfarin sodium (Coumadin) therapy and extrinsic factor deficiencies
- >30 secs bleeding precaution!*diets high in green leafy vegetables can increase vit K absorption and shorten the PT
- 2-3 standard warfarin therapy
- 3-4.5 high-dose warfarin therapy
- used during oral anticoagulant use
- 3-6 minutes
- BP cuff is placed on the upper arm and inflated to 40 mmHg. A lancet or scalpel blade is used to make a shallow incision that is 1 mm deep on the underside of the forearm.The time from when the incision is made until all bleeding has stopped is measured and is called the bleeding time. Every 30 seconds, filter paper or a paper towel is used to draw off the blood.
- 1-3 minutes
- Patient is pricked with a special needle or lancet, preferably on the earlobe or fingertip, after having been swabbed with alcohol. The patient then wipes the blood every 30 seconds with a filter paper. The test ceases when bleeding ceases.
- 0%-5% of total
- Cardiac muscle
CK (Creatine Kinase)
- 26-174 units/L
- detects myocardial or skeletal muscle damage or CNS damage
- *CK levels begin to rise within 6 hours of muscle damage, peaks at 18 hours and returns to normal in 2-3 days.
Troponin I and Troponin T
- Troponin I = 0.6-1.5 ng/mL
- Troponin T = 0.1-0.2 ng/mL
- protein released when infarction causes damage to myocardium
Natriuretic peptides =
used to identify with HF; ANP, BNP, CNP.
- 22-27 pg/mL
- synthesized in cardiac atrial muscle.
- <100 pg/mL
- synthesized in cardiac ventricle muscle
- the ^ the BNP level, the more severe the HF. If BNP is ^, dyspnea is due to HF. If BNP is normal, dyspnea due to pulmonary problem.
- range provided with results
- synthesized in endothelial cells
- 10-40 units/L
- used to identify hepatocellular injury and liver inflammation
- 10-30 units/L
- used to evaluate a suspected hepatocellular injury, inflammation or disease.