Card Set Information
It depends on the rock formation
Could be CaCO
, MgFe, SiO
Van't Hoff 10K Rule
Reaction Rate doubles with every 10 degrees K increase in temperture
Le Chatelier's Principle
If a chemical system at equilibrium experiences a change in:
4. Total Pressure
Then the system will shift in order to counteract the change.
H =neg value
deltar H= 0
Change in temperature has no effect on the system
Equilibrium Constants (k)
How do strong electrolytes dissociate in water?
How do weak electrolytes dissociate in water?
What is electrical conductivity?
Sum parameter for ions in aqueous solutions.
Electrical conductivity depends on...
Type of Electrolyte
What is the dissociation process?
1. Breaking of lattice
2. Hydration of ions to keep ions apart (shield charges)
Does each ion have the same number of water molecules in its hydrate shell?
No ions are charged differently depending on density and size
What is an ideal solution?
Ions are so well shielded by a hydrate shell that there is no electrostatic forces between them.
What is a non-ideal solution?
Electrostatic forces between ions exist
What does I>0.01 M mean?
Concentration of free ions does not equal the total concentration
Ions interact electrostatically (non-ideal solution)
What are activity coefficients used for?
Adjusting solutions with I>0.01M (non ideal solutions) molar concentrations to effective concentrations (activity).
What is Ionic strength?
The measure of ions in a charged solution
Salts are more soluble in...
Alkali Metal Salts are...
very soluble in water
What are some Alkali Metal Salts???
Salts containing nitrate ion (NO3-) are...
very soluble in water.
Most salts containing Cl-, Br-, I- are....
very soluble in water
Salts containing Ag+ and Pb2+ are
not soluble in water
Are FeCl2, AlBr3, MgI2 soluble salts?
Are AgCl, PbBr2 soluble salts?
Weak electrolytes are...
insoluble in water
Strong electrolytes are...
soluble in water
What is the Saturation Index (SI) of a mineral in equilibrium in an aqueous solution?
What is the Saturation Index (SI) of a mineral in an under-saturated aqueous solution?
What is the Saturation Index (SI) of a mineral in a super-saturated aqueous solution?
Is it possible to compare Ksp values?
No, Ksp values must be converted to Solubility (S) and then compared.
Gases are more soluble in...
What is the effect of adding NaF to a CaF2 solution?
The common ion effect
Increase in [F-] makes the ion product greater than the solubility product (K
Until equilibrium is reestablished CaF
will precipitate out of the solution
Over all result of adding a common ion is a decrease in the solubility of the salt in the solution
What is the Common Ion Effect?
Le Chatelier Principal
The increase in common ion makes the ion product larger than the solubility product (Ksp)
Until equilibrium is reestablished the salt in the solution will precipitate out
Overall result of adding a foreign ion is the decrease in solubility of the salt in the solution
What is the effect of adding NaCl to a CaSO
Foreign Ion Effect
The concentration of Ca
The activity coefficient (f) of Ca
This occurs until equilibrium and the solubility product (Ksp) is reestablished again.
What is the foreign ion effect?
The addition of a foreign ion causes the system to shift out of equilibrium
Ionic strength (I) increases
Concentration (C) of the products in solution to increase and the activity coefficient (f) decreases
This process occurs until equilibrium is reestablished
Enthalpy (delta H) depends on...
What are some ions who's concentration is controlled by other ions?
For Endothermic Processes (+ delta H) solubility....
increases with increasing temperature
For Exothermic Processes (-delta H) solubility....
decreases with increasing temperature.
For Endothermic reactions the Lattice Enthalpy is....
> Hydration Enthalpy
For Exothermic reactions the Lattice Enthalpy is....
What is lattice enthalpy?
Strength of forces between ions in an ionic solid
What is Hydration Energy?
Energy released upon attachment of water molecules to ions.
Special case of dissolution energy
What is an Example of Hydration Energy?
Dissolving a salt in water
Outermost ions (those at the edge of the lattice) move away from the lattice and become covered with the neighboring water molecule
If Hydration Energy >= Lattice Energy then
the salt soluble in water
For Ionic Strength (I) do not multiply by....
charge and consider all of the molecules present in the water sample
When claculating Ionic Balance mulitply mol/L of substance by....
only consider major and minor ions in the water sample