Intro to Animals

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Intro to Animals
2014-03-18 20:28:59

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  1. What gives rise to tissues and organs?
    the embryonic/germ layers
  2. What is Diploblastic?
    • have 2 germ layers (ectoderm and endoderm)
    • includes cnidarians (jelly fish and anemone) and comb jellies
  3. What is Triploblastic?
    • have 3 germ layers (ecto, endo and mesoderm)
    • includes: flatworms, arthropods (have an exoskleteton), vertebrates and others
  4. What is a coelem?
    • a true body cavity (derived from mesoderm)
    • fluid or air filled space
    • internal organs are suspended in
  5. What is a pseudocoelom?
    body cavity derived from meso and endoderm
  6. What are triploblastic animals with a body cavity  called?
  7. What are triplosblastic animals lacking a body cavity called?
  8. What are the two main types of cell development?
    Protostome and deuterostome
  9. What is protostome development?
    • spiral (cells are not parallel)
    • have a determinate cleavage
    • fate of cell is determined early
  10. What is deutrostome development?
    • Radial (form parallel/perpendicularly)
    • indeterminate cleavage
    • each cell can complete an embryo (can from identical twins)
  11. What characteristics do the old and new tree agree on?
    • Animalia: monophyletic
    • All animals share the common ancestor colonial flagellate
    • sponges are basal animals
    • Eutetazoa is a clade with true tissues
    • most animal phyla belong to the clade Bilateria
    • chordates belong to the clade Deuterostomia
  12. What characteristics do the old and new tree disagree on?
    old: divides bilaterian into the clades deuterostomes and protostomes

    New uses three clades: deuterostomia, ecdysozoa and Lophotrochozoa
  13. What are the old and new trees based on?
    • old= morphology
    • new= molecular evidence
  14. What did the common ancestor of animals resemble?
  15. Characteristics of Choanoflagellata
    • Heterotrophic protist
    • single flagellum surrounded by collar of microvilli
    • fingerlike projections of cell membrane
    • similar cell morphology to sponges
  16. What appeared in the Cambrian period?
    • complex life, including those with skeletons appeared (most major phyla appeared)
    • 535-525 mya
    • during Paleozoic era (542-251 mya)
  17. Mesozoic Era
    • 251-65.5 mya
    • first mammals emerged
    • dinosaurs were dominant terrestrial vertebrates
    • coral reefs emerged
    • plants and insects became more diverse
  18. Cenzoic Era
    • 65.5 mya-present
    • began with mass extinction of animals
    • mammals became dominant
    • global cooling