Chapter 9 - The Nervous System

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teriann
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265474
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Chapter 9 - The Nervous System
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2014-03-12 21:20:55
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nervous system
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The Nervous System
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  1. Two parts of Nervous System:
    • Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  2. Organs of CNS
    Brain, spinal chord
  3. Functions of the Nervous System
    Coordinate functions of the body & maintain homeostasis
  4. Nervous Tissue:
    • Neuroglia (glial cells)
    • Neurons
  5. Neuroglia (glial cells): nervous tissue
    4 types in CNS
    2 types in PNS
    • -glue that holds NS together
    • CNS:
    • 1) Astrocytes: metabolic/structural support
    • 2) Microglia: remove debris
    • 3) Ependymal cells: cover surfaces/line cavities
    • 4) Oligodendrocytes: make myelin
    • PNS:
    • 1) Schwann cells: makes myelin for PNS
    • 2) satellite cells: support cells
  6. Neurons: nervous tissue, control functions of the nervous system
    • Body: cell metabolism
    • Dendrites: receive information
    • Body:  generates/send signals to other cells
    • Axon: how signal travels
    • Axon terminal: connects to receiving cell, this is called a synapse
  7. Types of neurons:
    • Sensory: input neurons
    • Motor: output neurons
    • Interneurons: carry info between neurons (association neurons)
  8. How neurons work: Excitable Cells:
    • -carries small electrical charge when stimulated
    • - all three types of muscle cells are excitable cells, as well as many glands
  9. How neurons work: Polarized cells:
    • - a resting cell (not excitable)
    • -inside of polarized cell has more negative charge than outside the cell
  10. How neurons work: Depolarization:
    -neuron receives impulse, sodium ions enter axon, brings a more positive charge to axon
  11. How neurons work: Repolarization:
    -cell has returned to its resting state, potassium (positive) leaves axon after sodium enters, bringing positive charge out of axon, returning cell to negative state
  12. Reflex:
    • automatic response to a stimulus:
    • - blinking
    • - sneezing
    • - knee jer
  13. The Reflex Arc:
    • 1) receptor cells sense stimulus
    • 2) receptor cells transmit action potential or nerve impulse to sensory neuron
    • 3) sensory neuron transmits info to integration center in spinal cord
    • 4) info travels along interneuron to the motor neuron
    • 5) motor neuron transmits action potential to effector (motor or action) organ causing that organ to respond
  14. Sympathetic nervous system:
    • -fight or flight
    • -responds to a threat
  15. parasympathetic nervous system:
    -returns the body to a normal state after threat
  16. Somatic nervous system:
    -includes nerves that innervate (stimulate) the skeletal muscles
  17. Autonomic Nervous System:
    -includes nerves that innervate (stimulate) the smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands
  18. Meninges:
    The outer layers of the brain
  19. Three Layers of Meninges
    (outer layers of the brain):
    • 1) dura mater (strongest - outermost)
    • 2) arachnoid mater (delicate middle layer)
    • 3) pia mater (innermost, with blood vessels)
  20. What do the meninges do???
    • - Protect the brain and spinal cord
    • - Support blood vessels
    • - made of connective tissue
    • - contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  21. Ventricles of the Brain:
    • - 4 hollow chambers
    • - CSF is produced, stored, and transported
  22. What is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?
    • - a clear fluid that fill the ventricles and circulates between the arachnoid and pia maters.  CSF:
    • - cushions and protects the brain
    • - carries nutrients and removes waste from NS
    • - flows from vent to vent to subarachnoid space and spinal cord and returns to the blood
  23. The Cerebrum: the largest area of the brain
    • -Personality, Intelligence, Memory
    • -cerebral cortex: outer layer, gray matter
    • -contains ridges (gyri) and grooves (sulci)
    • -white matter:beneath cortex, neurons what are myelinated
  24. The Hemispheres of the Cerebrum:
    • * Divided into two halves*
    • * Connected by corpus callosum (nerve fibers)*
  25. Four Lobes of the Cerebrum:
    • - Frontal Lobe - emotion and personality; problem solving, memory, language, impulse control, motor function
    • - Parietal Lobe- sensory perception, vision and touch; spatial relations
    • - Temporal Lobe- hearing, visual, memory
    • -Occipital Lobe - vision
  26. The Cerebellum:
    • - the "little brain"
    • - posterior region of the brain
    • - coordination, balance, equilibrium
  27. Brain Stem, 3 sections:
    • - Medulla Oblongata - breathing center; heart rate and blood pressure
    • - Pons - part of breathing center
    • - Midbrain - relays visual and auditory impulses; regulates vital functions such as blood pressure, heart rate and breathing
  28. The Spinal Cord:
    • - From brain stem to first Lumbar vertebrae
    • - protected by the vertebrae and 3 layers of meninges
    • - transmits sensory info form PNS to the brain, and from the brain to the effectors (muscles and glands)
    • - 12 pairs of cranial nerves
    • - 31 pairs spinal nerves
  29. Limbic and Reticular Activating Systems:
    - systems located throughout brain. Plays rold in coordination and regulation of physical and psychological functions
  30. Limbic System:
    • - located below the cerebral cortex
    • - hippocampus and amygdala
    • - learning, emotional control, memory
  31. Reticular Activating System (RAS):
    • - group of neurons called nuclei located in the brain stem
    • - receives sensory info and transmits to cerebral cortex in the CNS
    • - acts as bridge between brain stem and cerebral cortex
    • - manages wakefulness, attentiveness and sleep

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