Mini Stats and Stuff

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  1. Hindsight Bias
    the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have forseen it
  2. Critical THinking
    • thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions
    • rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
  3. Theory
    an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
  4. Hypothesis
    a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
  5. Operational Definition
    • a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables
    • for example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
  6. Replication
    repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
  7. Case Study
    an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
  8. Survey
    a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
  9. Population
    all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn
  10. Random Sample
    a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
  11. Naturalistic Observation
    observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
  12. Correlation
    a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other
  13. Correlation Coefficient
    a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
  14. Scatterplots
    • a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables
    • the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables
    • the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation)
  15. Illusory Correlation
    the perception of a relationship where none exists
  16. Experiment
    a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
  17. Random Assignment
    assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups
  18. Double-Blind Procedure
    an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo
  19. Placebo Effect
    • experimental results caused by expectations alone
    • Any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which recipient assumes is an active ingredient
  20. Experimental Group
    in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
  21. Control Group
    • the group that is not exposed to the treatment
    • Contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
  22. Independent Variable
    the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
  23. Dependent Variable
    the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
  24. Standard Deviation
    a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
  25. Normal Curve (Normal Distribution)
    • a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data
    • most scores fall near the mean, and fewer and fewer near the extremes
  26. Statistical Significance
    a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
Card Set:
Mini Stats and Stuff
2014-03-10 22:58:58

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