Radiation Biology(Ch. 4) Mosby Board Review Questions

Card Set Information

Author:
jaxkaty5437
ID:
265539
Filename:
Radiation Biology(Ch. 4) Mosby Board Review Questions
Updated:
2014-03-08 12:37:27
Tags:
Radiation Therapy
Folders:
Mosby Board Review Questions,RTT Board Review
Description:
Mosby Board Review Questions
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user jaxkaty5437 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. TD 5/5 indicates the dose required to cause 5% chance of injury to people irradiated within ______ of exposure
    5

    • Better definition:
    • The radiation dose that would likely cause
    • 5 % of an exposed population to realize a adverse late effect in the 5 years following exposure
  2. *LD 50/30 indicates the dose likely to cause DEATH in 50% of the population within______following exposure.
    30 days
  3. Whole kidney TD 5/5
    23 Gy
  4. *TD 5/5 Whole brain:
    45 Gy
  5. The period of organogenisis normally occurs during weeks______of fetal development.
    2-8
  6. *The radiosensitivity in tissue may be enhanced by:
    increasing the oxygen in tissue
  7. The most radioresistant phase of cellular division:
    S
  8. *The immediate symptoms that appear after an acute radiation exposure are called:
    prodromal symptoms
  9. The laws of B & T state that ionizing radiation is more effective against cells that are(name 3):
    • 1)actively mitotic
    • 2)Undifferentiated
    • 3)Have a long mitotic future
  10. *The development of radiation induced cancer is known as a (deterministic/stochastic) effect.
    stochastic effect
  11. Nausea is associated with the ______syndrome.
    prodromal
  12. *Radiation interacts with tissue (uniformly, randomly).
    randomly
  13. *Cells are most sensitive during the ____phase of division.
    M
  14. The fraction of cells actually progressing through cycles of division is known as the (growth/surviving) fraction.
    surviving
  15. *The period over which radiation is delivered is referred to as the:
    protraction
  16. *Cells that are undifferentiated and have  high mitotic rate are (radiosensitive, radioresistant). Name 2 examples:
    • radiosensitive
    • blood cells, germ cells
  17. *Cells that are moderately differentiated and have a moderate mitotic rate have ______sensitivity. Name 3 examples:
    • intermediate
    • intestinal cells, myelocytes, skin
  18. *Cells that are moderately differentiated and have  low mitotic rate are (radiosensitive, radioresistant). Name 2 examples:
    • radioresistant
    • liver mature bone cells
  19. *Cells that have a low to a nonexistent mitotic rate, are well diferentiated, and are (radiosensitive, radioresistant). Name 2 examples:
    • radioresistant
    • nerves, adult brain
  20. FYI:
    Survival curves: low LET and  high LET:
  21. *Erythematous skin reactions during fractionated radiation therapy are seen as a result of:
    Vascular dilation in the area
  22. Epilation initially observed during standard fractionation schemes at an aprx dose of:
    15 Gy

    (1 1/2-2 weeks)
  23. *The production of free radicals most often occurs from the irradiation of_____.
    H20
  24. Fractionated doses are better tolerated than single doses because:
    tissue repair occurs between exposures
  25. *Which of the following is an effect of radiation on DNA:
    a. crosslinking
    b. increased viscosity
    c. free radical formation
    d. Hydroxyl formation
    • a. cross-linking
    • b. increased viscosity
    • c. free radical formation
    • d. Hydroxyl formation
  26. As the dose of radiation increases, tissue recovery time(increases, decreases).
    increases
  27. *In linear or nonlinear threshold dose response curves, the following is true of the response:
    Response may not occur at low doses
  28. *The average energy deposited per unit path length in a medium by ionizing radiation as it passes through that medium best describes:
    LET
  29. The most radiosensitive tissue group among the following sites is:
    a. central nervous system
    b. alimentary tract
    c. muscle
    d. cardiovascular system
    • a. central nervous system
    • b. alimentary tract
    • c. muscle
    • d. cardiovascular system
  30. *The 4 R's of radiobiology:
    • 1)reoxygenation
    • 2)repopulation
    • 3)redistribution
    • 4)repair

    "OPDP"  :)
  31. The whole body syndrome likely to be observed following a single dose of 1-10 Gy is the _____syndrome.
    CNS
  32. Whole body irradiation syndromes:
    hematopoietic syndrome:
    dose range: ____
    Time until death without rescue:______
    • 300-800 cGy
    • 10-15 days
  33. Whole body irradiation syndromes
    GI syndrome:
    dose range: ____
    Time until death without rescue:______
    • 1000-5000 cGy
    • 3-10 days
  34. Whole body irradiation syndromes:
    Cerebrovascular syndrome:
    dose range: ____
    Time until death without rescue:______
    • >5000 cGy
    • Hours-3 days
  35. *Which of the following would be a late or stochastic radiation response?
    a. sterility
    b. bone marrow suppression
    c. skin erythema
    d. lung cancer
    • a. sterility
    • b. bone marrow suppression
    • c. skin erythema
    • d. lung cancer
  36. Which of the following is a more accurate representation of cell radiosensitivity?
    a) D0
    b. Dq
    c. LD 50/30
    d. D
    D0
  37. *The standard radiation used to determine RBE is:
    250 keV x-ray
  38. *Without medical intervention, a person exposed to a single whole body dose of ___ will die within 10 days.
    a. 10 Gy
    b. 0.25 Gy
    c. 1.0 Gy
    d. 1.0 cGy
    • a. 10 Gy
    • b. 0.25 Gy
    • c. 1.0 Gy
    • d. 1.0 cGy
  39. *Irradiation of the salivary glands my lead to permanent xerostomia above doses of _____with typical 2 Gy/5 per week fractions
    40 Gy

    (??I have 50 Gy for salivary gland TD 5/5)
  40. *Tissue injury ____as the volume of tissue irradiated increases.
    increases
  41. Which is lower-the TD 5/5 or the TD 50/5 for the colon?
    TD 5/5
  42. *The TD 5/5 is (higher, lower) for immature bone than mature bone.
    lower
  43. The TD 5/5 is (higher, lower) for bone marrow irradiation in a single dose than in a fractionated dose.
    lower
  44. *An anticipated response to radition dose above 55 Gy to the colon is:
    fistula
  45. *Regarding nonstochastic effects(choose any or all):
    1)the effects are never seen in the one exposed
    2) the effects are never seen in future generation
    3)The probability of occurring is related to the dose
    4)The severity of effects is related to the dose
    • 1)the effects are never seen in the one exposed
    • 2) the effects are never seen in future generation
    • 3)The probability of occurring is related to the dose
    • 4)The severity of effects is related to the dose
  46. The most radiosensitive tissue group is:
    a. plasma membrane
    b. alimentary tract
    c. lens
    d. urinary
    • a. plasma membrane
    • b. alimentary tract
    • c. lens
    • d. urinary
  47. *The part of the cell between the membrane and the nucleus is known as the:
    cytoplasm
  48. The effect of radiation is influence by(pick any or all):
    1)radiation type
    2)volume of tissue irradiated
    3)fractionation
    4)total dose
    • 1)radiation type
    • 2)volume of tissue irradiated
    • 3)fractionation
    • 4)total dose
  49. *The primary function of the cell nucleus is:
    housing DNA and RNA
  50. *Redness of the skin caused by permeability of the capillaries:
    erythema
  51. Grade 1 toxicity for the skin caused by depopulation of clonogenc cells in the epidermis.
    desquamation
  52. *Division of total dose into smaller doses given at intervals:
    fractionation
  53. *Liberated constituent of a molecule:
    free radical
  54. *The main objective of radiation protection is the:
    prevention of radiation induced stochastic and deterministic effects
  55. A grade 1 morbidity for the colon would indicate:
    change in frequency of bowel movements
  56. *A grade 3 morbidity for the skin would indicate:
    confluent moist desquamation
  57. *Somatic effects are:
    the effects limited to the exposed individual
  58. Ellis' formula did not accommodate:
    different tissue types with varying sensitivites
  59. Conventional fractionation was based on experiments performed to:
    sterilize rams
  60. *When irradiating the spleen for metastatic disease, hypofractionation may be employed, whereas with primary H&N cancers may employ hyperfractionation. What is the rationale for this difference?
    H&N cancers originating in the mucosa have a high mitotic activity and short intervals between mitotic events. Hyperfractionation attempts to delay mitotic activity and synchronizw cells to most sensitive phases of division to increase cell kill. Hypofractionation provides the opportunity to cause cell death to any malignant cell infiltrating the organ and at the same time giving sensitive cells time to repair.
  61. *There is a patient scheduled for 6 wks of RT with standard fractionation. After wk 2 he informs you that he will be taking a 3 wk cruise and plans to complete therapy when he returns. What would your counseling include?
    The 3 wk break gives abnormal and normal cells adequate time to repopulate. An adjustment in his total dose and fraction size may need to be made using the BED formula due to his prolonged absence. The original 6 wks may need to be adjusted.
  62. *Regarding tolerance of tissue, as the volume of tissue increases, the tolerance dose_____.
    decreases
  63. The standard proposed unit for "rets" in Ellis' formula held the value of:
    1800 rets
  64. *Lethal damage is
    irreparable and leads to cell death
  65. At doses of ___Gy, you may see latent stricture in the esophagus during standard fractionation
    60 Gy
  66. *Ionizing radiation can disrupt chemical _____ in important biologic materials.
    bonds
  67. What are the DNA nitrogenous bases?
    adenine, thymine, guinine, cytosine

    (uracil replaces cytosine in RNA)
  68. *The structure of DNA is referred to as a:
    double helix
  69. Somatic cellular division takes place through the process of:
    mitosis

    *(germ cell replicate through meiosis)
  70. *Which phase of the cell cycle occurs between the two gap phases, G1 and G2?
    Synthesis
  71. What is the proper order of the steps of cellular division?
    G1, S, G2, M

  72. *A cell survival curve usually has:
    shoulder and a straight portion
  73. *What dose effect curve implies that if radiation is doubled, the biologic effect is doubled?
    linear
  74. *Cellular growth and development is called:
    proliferation
  75. The key target in the human cell is the :
    DNA
  76. *Cells are about ___% water.
    85%
  77. On the cell survival curve, the "n" number denote:
    the  extrapolation number
  78. *Radiation would have less effect on a cell if given:
    over a longer period of time

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview