Exam 2.3: Textbook

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  1.                                                               i.      Microsporidiams
    1.      Has __of animals and __ and __, but lack __(3)__
    2.      Characterized by the presence of a __ that shoots out of __ and does what of the host cellà contents injected into host cellà __-->multiply, relying on host cell for __
    • spore-forming unicellular parasits 
    • well-defined nuclei and plasma membranes
    • mitochondria, stacked Golgi and peroxisomes
    • polar tube
    • unicellular spores
    • penetrates the plasma membrane 
    • infectionà 
    • energy
  2. 1.      Cell wall is made of __ and __
    a.      Chitin provides the spores with __
    2.      Some reproduce __, others __
    3.      Most infect insects, but others infect fish and vertebrates
    proteins and chitin

    high resistance to unfavorable conditions

    sexually, others asexually
  3.                                                               i.      Chytrids
    1.      Mostly __and some soils
    2.      Vary in __ and __
    3.      Cell walls contain __and they store __
    4.      Nuclear envelope remains intact until __, when it breaks in a __ and then reforms around the daughter nuclei 
    • aquatic
    • sexual interacitons and life histories
    • chitin 
    • glycogen
    • late telophase
    • median plane
  4. 1.      Almost all are __with few __
    2.      They are distinguished by their __ (zoospores and gametes), which have a __

    • coenocytic 
    • septa
    • characteristic motile cells
    • single, posterior, smooth flagellum
  5. Describe the body?
    • a.      Some are unicellular with no mycelium
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      This organism is transformed into a reproductive structure
    • b.      Others have rhizoids that extend into the substrate and serve as an anchor
  6. a.      Some species are __and one species does what to frogs?

    b.      Several are __, causing diseases like black wart disease of potatoes
    2.      Reproduction
    a.      Some have __
    b.      Others have __
    • parasites 
    • thickened skin of amphibians-->frog die-offs
    • plant pathogens
    • alternation of isomorphic generations
    • alternation of heteromorphic generations
  7. Zygomycetes

    __ group.


    May cause?
    • 1.      Polyphyletic group
    • 2.      Location: decaying plant and animal matter in the soil; some are parasites of plants, insects, or small soil animals 
    • 1.      May cause infection in humans and domestic animals
  8. Zygomycetes cont.

    - Structure
    • 1.      Structure:
    • a.      Most have coenocytic hypha, within which the cytoplasm can be seen streaming rapidly
    • b.      They are recognized by their rapidly growing hyphae
    • c.       Some are unicellular, yeastlike
  9. reproduction of zygomycetes
    • 1.      Reproduction:
    • a.      Asexual spores are produced in specialized sporangia borne on the hyphae
  10. 1.      __ is a black mold that forms cottony masses on carbohydrate rich foods
    a.      its __is composed of several distinct kinds of __ that consists of rapidly growing, __ that grow through substrate, absorbing nutrients
                                                                                                                                          i.      from these hyphae, arching hyphae called __are formed
    • Rhizopus stolonifer
    • mycelium 
    • haploid hyphae
    • coenocytec hyphae
    • stolons
  11. 1.      stolons form __wherever their tips come into contact with the substrate
    a.      from each of these points, a sturdy, erect branch arises, which is called a __because __
    • rhizoids 
    • sporangiophore 
    • it produces a spherical sporangium at its apex
  12.     i.      How does each sporangium begin?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                ii.      the __is cleaved and the cell wall forms around each of the __ to form __
                                                                                                                                                                                                              iii.      as the wall matures, it becomes __, giving the mold its characteristic color; with the breaking of the sporangium wall, the spores are liberated, and each spore can germinate to produce a new __, completing the __
    each sporangium begins as a swelling, into which a nucleus flows and is isolated by formation of a septum


    • asexually produced nuclei
    • spores


    • mycelium
    • asexual cycle
  13. 1.      Zygomycetes named for the formation of __, which develop within thick-walled structures called __in species that reproduce sexually
    a.      The zygospores remain __
    b.      Sexual reproduction in R. stolonifer requires what?
    • sexually produced resting spores called zygospores
    • zygosporangia 
    • dormant
    • the presence of two physiologically distinct mycelia, designated + and – strains
  14.                                                                                                                                       i.      When two compatible individuals are in close proximity, what happens?
    1.      Species that require + and – strains for sexual reproduction are __, whereas self-fertile species are called __
    • they produce hormones that cause outgrowths of the yphae to come together and develop into gametangia
    • heterothallic
    • homothallic
  15. 1.      The __become separated from the rest of the fungal body by the formation of __
    a.      The walls between the two touching gametangia __, and the two __ come together
                                                                                                                                          i.      Following __(fusion of the two multinucleate gametangia), what happens?
    • gametangia 
    • septa
    • dissolve
    • multinucleate protoplasts
    • plasmogamy 
    • the + and – nuclei pair, and a thick walled zygosporangium produced
  16.                                                                                                                                       i.      Inside the __, the paired + and – nuclei fuse to form __ which develop into a single __
    At the time of germination, the zygosporangium does what?
    • zygosprangium
    • diploid nuclei
    • multinucleate zygospore
    • cracks open and a sporangiospore emerges from the zygospore
  17. a.      Meiosis occurs at the time of __, so the spores produced asexually within the new sporangium are haploid
    When does the cycle begin again
    • germination
    • when the spores germinate
  18. Ecological significance of zygomycetes?
    1.      Entomophthorales is parasitic on insects and other small animals; other species are used for biological control of insect pests of crops
  19. Disease of zygomycetes?
    1.      Rhizopus causes soft rot of flowers fruis, seeds ect. And Choanephora causes soft rot of squash, pumpkin, etc. 
  20. Glomeromycetes:

    Ecological importance
    • 1.      Ecological importance is major
    • a.      Symbiotic: mycorrhizas
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Cannot be grown independently of their host palnats
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      They form arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM fungi)
  21. Glomeromycetes:

    1.      Widespread and occur in about 80% of __
    2.      Reproduction:
    a.      __ and reproduce only __by means of unusually large __, which are produced underground
    • vascular plants
    • Coenocytic hyphae
    • asexually 
    • multinucleate spores
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Exam 2.3: Textbook
2014-03-10 22:24:09
Plant Kingdom
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